СOMBINATIONAL ABILITY OF SPECIALIZED BREEDS AND TYPES OF PIGS IN INDUSTRIAL CROSSBREEDING
For several decades, widespread industrial crossing different breeds of pigs. However, intensive importation foreign breeding of pig and use foreign technologies, a prerequisite for improving meat and slaughter quality of livestock. Success in solving this problem depends on identifying the best combinations of parental pairs with a comprehensive study of regularities succession and the descendants of preferred breeding traits are determined by genes and polymer characterized by a wide range of variability influenced by environmental conditions. In terms of industrial use of the most successful combinations of lines, genotypes, even a slight increase productivity, ensure, ultimately, significant economic effects.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability fattening and meat quality of pigs and calves landed determine the best options for combinations of parental pairs when crossed.
Studies were conducted in conditions of industrial technology at without belt dependent concentrations type of feeding and regulated microclimate on the basis of LLB "Mayak-Agro" Cherkassy region. Groups breeder was formed by unique origin, age, physiological condition, body weight. Assessment fattening, meat quality, physical and chemical properties of meat and fat conducted by conventional methods Polivoda AM and else. The morphological composition of carcasses studied by diking corps. The chemical composition and physical properties of meat were determined by conventional methods in condition of biotechnology laboratories Cherkassy National University. B. Khmelnitsky.
In the first stage crossed sows of Ukrainian large white breed (UVB) with boars Landrace (LA) English selection, and received from them hybrids (hybrids F1) sires with specialized meat breeds: Pietrain (P) British breeding red white girdle (RWG) and Duroc Ukrainian selection “Steppes” (DUSS). It is established that the use of these industrial crossbreeding schemes leading to improved slaughter yield of 4.4 - 8.4% in the carcasses of local groups. Severity of heterosis for slaughter relies was in the range of 0.16 to 1.88%. Combining breeds LA and UVB has increased the length of the carcasses in hybrids by 2.5 cm (P> 0.95) at the lowest standard deviation - 0.14 cm. At the same time, crossing two-hybrids local pig breeds of boars’ P led rather to reduce the carcasses length compared to the original parental forms 2.6 cm (P> 0.95). Regarding mass index posterior third corps tends to increase it to 11.3 - 12.5 kg accurate advantage of using Landrace breeds (P> 0.95) and pietrain (P> 0.999). The fact that the carcasses obtained from pigs combination 1/4UVB x 1/4LA x 1/2P, were significantly shorter and had the largest area "muscle eye" is quite natural and due to the influence of breeds belonging boars. The efficacy of the combination of maternal two-breeds form hybrids with UVB × LA boars pietrain and red white girdle, confirmed the calculated values of general and specific combining ability. When using boars breed red white girdle highest positive effect of general combining ability was observed in terms of area "muscle eye" (4.94) meeting of body (0.93) slaughter yield (0.35). In addition, the use of the scheme for industrial crossing red white girdle helped reduce fat content in carcass and thick bacon (- 1.41 - 0.64). Increasing the length of the carcass at slaughter hogs promoted the use of Duroc Ukrainian selection “Steppes” (1.32) and Landrace (1.08).
Boars used breeds influenced fattening and greasy meat quality of offspring with different force. Its value depended on the individual animal and breeds consolidation for the identified - from negative 8.49 to positive 6.71% age achieve live weight of 100 kg and from minus 9.34 to positive 6.34% in the average daily increments. Differential power of selective effects on offspring among individual species ranged from (- 9.34) to (+6,71)% (P> 0,999).
Given the importance of meat quality indicators as signs core products finals pig should always check the structural elements of Ukrainian large white breed on the matching ability. This lets use the best combination to improve performance and avoid unwanted flocks crossbreeds combinations.
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