EFFICIENCY OF SELECTION BY EXTERIOR TYPE IN THE BREEDING HERDS DAIRY BREEDS
The need to study constitutional-exterior features of dairy cattle is due, of course, established in many studies to their positive connectivity with performance and lasting economic use. The vast majority of scientists-breeders thinks, that breeding cattle by technological features should determine the basic direction of work in farming on the threshold of XXI century. Based from the above, the aim of the research was to evaluate the productive and technological features cattle of dairy breeds combined with linear estimation from the body type. The study focused on linear estimation of cattle dairy breeds by the type of body structure and study their impact on economically useful traits – don’t have any doubts.The study was conducted in pedigree cattle breeding farms of Holstein, Ukrainian black- and red-white dairy breeds in stock of 1300 cows. Linear evaluation of cows by external type carried from the method of Hmelnychyi L.M. developed by employees of Institute to breeding and animal genetics. Comparative evaluation of animals for productive characteristics held within the breeding herds and genealogical groups. In the course of the work done was applied genealogical, population, genetics and mathematical methods Study of frequency heritability, variability, estimation of genotype of animals and other classical research methods. A statistical analysis result of research was conducted on algorithms N.A. Plohinskyi.Cows first calves Ukrainian red- and black-white dairy breeds are characterized by the following measurements articles: the height at the withers and sacrum 132.7&132,2 and 141,1 & 140,8 cm, with well-developed breasts in depth (72.0 and 71.5 cm), width (44.6 and 43.1 cm) and girth (189.9 and 187.9 cm), with extensive backwards in tubers of Ilium (51.3 and 50.9 cm) and in buttocks (34.6 and 35.2 cm). Spit length of rump was 52.5 and 51.8 cm, and body length - 162.4 and 161.2 cm. First-born Holstein breed exceeded peers Ukrainian dairy breeds by the withers height on (1.4 and 1.9 cm) and a sacrum (1.2 and 1.5 cm), by breast depth 1.1 and 1.6 cm, but they are inferior on the basis of the width of the breast, especially in comparison with cattle Ukrainian red-white milk breed (1.8 cm). Holstein animals differed broader backwards in tubers of Ilium (0.3 and 0.7 cm), in the hipbone (0.3 and 0.4 cm) and in buttocks (by 2.0 and 1.1 cm), and longer by 1.2 and 2.4 cm trunk, by chest girth of 2.4 and 4.4 cm.Large coefficients of variation measurements describing the distance from the bottom of the udder to hock (Cv = 33,2 - 42,3%), between the front (Cv = 24,2 - 28,1%), back (Cv = 33,3 - 53,9%) and side teat (Cv = 19,1 - 27,0%) indicate the level of not consolidation studied animal herds on these characteristics. Comparative characteristics of the firstborn cow’s udder Ukrainian red- and black-white dairy breeds shows, that animal’s udder great and makes for girth - 132.4 and 135.3 cm, length - 38.7 and 40.0 cm and width - 29.9 and 32.3 cm with advantage of reliable peers Ukrainian black-white dairy cattle for the circumference of 2.9 cm (TD = 2.41), length - 1.3 cm (td = 1,74) and width - 2.4 cm (td = 4,56). Most of the morphological features of the udder is in the positive connection with the largest yield per lactation. These include the circumference (r = 0,430 and 0.335) length (r = 0,376 and 0.353), width (r = 0,347 and 0.232) and depth of the front quarters (r = 0,160 and 0.166).The estimated population of the first-calves is characterized by rather high rates, then ranging within 1.85 - 1.90 kg / min. exceeding the maximum target standards for Ukrainian dairy breeds 0.05 - 0.10 kg / min. During the breeding to improve dairy breeds is important to know and take into account the relationship between the magnitude and intensity of milking yield. When examined the effect of daily yield on the intensity of milk found, that the highest daily yield, the more intense cow milk off. This high correlation coefficients (r = 0,438 - 0,511) in large samples with high reliability (td = 6.11 – 7.87). Share heredity influence the total variability measurements articles of udder varies widely. Most udder traits are positive in relation to the size of yield and total yield of milk fat. A high level of heritability coefficients udder morphological characteristics sufficient for efficient breeding of dairy cattle and there was a positive correlation between the main floors of the udder and the largest yield provide breeding aimed at improvement.
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