FORMATION OF ECONOMIC UTILITIES OF DAIRY CATCH DEPENDING ON ORIGIN OF THE FATHER, LINE AND RELATED GROUP
Material and methods of research. The study was carried out based on the materials of the primary pedigree registration in the herd of the leading breeding plants for breeding Ukrainian red and black-and-white dairy breeds of cattle, OOO "Agrofirma "Svitanok" in the Donetsk region. The number of the firstborns we analyzed amounted to 515. In general, the matrix of observations was compiled containing information on 1271 animals for 448 variables (signs).
Results. In order to assess the effectiveness of the use of these selection groups in the herd, a comparative analysis of group averages for the main breeding characteristics was carried out. The significant difference in the number of bulls used in the herd of the bull breeding farm was taken into account, taking into account the characteristics of the daughters. Through the age of the first calving, the difference between the best and worst groups of half-sisters reached 159 ± 0.1 days or 20.3% (P <0.001), the reproductive capacity - 0,109 ± 0,017 or 11,3% (P <0,001), I milk for 305 days of the first lactation - 1616 ± 169.2 kg or 24.8% (P <0.001), the second - 1229 ± 57.2 kg or 18, 0% (P <0.001), the third - 1899 ± 426, 8 kg or 27.9% (P <0.001). On the content of fat in milk, the intergroup difference reached 0.41 ± 0.039% (P <0.001) of the first, 0.18 ± 0.053% (P <0.001) - for the second and 0.09 ± 0.020% (P <0.05) - (P <0.001), 0.11 ± 0.050% (P <0.001), and 0.11 ± 0.039% (P <0.1), respectively. The most abundant is Offspring used in recent years by the bulls Jupiter 27640964506 (64 daughters), Campino 112825601 (84 daughters) and Kadisko 579904182 (65 daughters). It is noteworthy that in comparison with the above the milk production for 305 days of the first lactation was in the daughters of the bulls Erik 348025783 (6508 ± 259.7 kg) and Jansker 345199616 (6497 ± 184.6 kg). The daughters of the bull S.S.Khoma 399264 KKG-1314 (4.06 ± 0.050%) differed in the high fat content of milk with comparatively low milk yields. Analysis of the exteriors of cows of daughters of different bulls attests to a certain degree of intergroup differentiation in these characters of the cows in question. The largest and tallest are the daughters of the bulls of the Holstein breed and the golshtinized type. According to some measurements, cows of golshtinized type do not even achieve standards for cows of fatty type, which are much lower. The daughters of the bull of the Holstein breed Erica 248025783, being large and tall among the cows of the groups under analysis, satisfied the standard Southern intra-pore type of the Ukrainian black-ripened milk breed only by measuring the breadth of the chest (42.5 ± 0.75 cm). The daughters of the bulls SSHouma 399264 KKG-1314 and Dragomir 113021400 almost satisfied the standard of the gholshtinized type of the Ukrainian red dairy breed only in the area of the pastern (18.6 ± 0.17 and 18.5 ± 0.13 cm). Intergroup differentiation of half-sisters after the father, in many cases proved to be significant and highly reliable. Bulls that were used in the herd belong to the lines and related groups of Ukrainian red and black-and-white dairy breeds with the numerical advantage of breeding groups of golshtinized type. Among the compared groups, the largest number of daughters were the producers of the Validian 1650414 group (166 head), Starbuck 352790 (114 goals), Chifa 1427381 (92 votes) and Kevelye 1620273 (83 votes). The highest milk productivity for the first and subsequent lactation with uniform growth was found in the cows of related groups of Holstein-type Maple 1430145, Olivishna 1491007, Starbak 352790 and Kevelie 1620273. The cows of the related groups Eliveyshna 1491007 and Kevelie 1620273 are the fastest-growing among the cows of the registered lines and related groups. Low among the cows of the registered lines and related groups, the cows of the fat-milk type of the related group by bay window 17021 differed in milk productivity.
Conclusion. The phenotypic variability of the selected economically useful traits of herd cows is largely determined by the influence of genetic factors, which makes it possible to expect a very significant effectiveness and efficiency of breeding in the herd. The origin of the father results in 7-61%, and belonging to the line or related group of 3-51% of the total phenotypic variability of the characteristics considered.
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