BANK OF GENETICAL RECOURCES – BASIS OF CREATION, DEVELOPMENT NEW AND PRESERVATION SMALL LOCAL BREEDS
The article presents the methods of creation and results of bank genophound functioning during 1976 – 2017 je. The conditions of selection organisation in cattle of the Ukraine during the term 1970 – 1980 je. and necessary of semenbank creation have been accounted. The importance of semenbank in creation new native specialized breeds dairy and beef direction of productivity and preservation genes of local breeds of cattle have been accounted.
The main task of the bank of genetic resources was the creation, prolonged storage of the necessary reserves of sperm, embryos and oocytes of animals with a special genetic value, similar to the world collection of plants at the Institute of Plant Sciences nd. M. I. Vavilov and their effective use in solving the most important breeding tasks:- removal of new breeds, types, lines, radical improvement of existing ones;- conservation of the gene pool and purebred breeding of the outbred type in the closed Populations of gene pool herds of local disappearing and local indigenous breeds, as well as reproducers of specialized breeds established in Ukraine;- Selective use of the gene pool of animals of various species and breeds in the future 25 years or more during the reproduction of pure-breed herds (breeds) that have disappeared, if necessary, on the mother stock of another breed. During the period from 1976 to 2000, 1.7 million spermodoses of outstanding bulls of 22 milk, 12 beef breeds and more than 15 domestic genotypes were placed in the sperm bank. The presence of gene pool stocks of sperm ensured the efficient use of outstanding animals at the breed level as a whole, which became the basis for the accelerated withdrawal of new red and white and black-and-white dairy, Ukrainian beef breeds. The formation of the genealogical structure of the lines, plant types of these rocks was provided exclusively through the gene pool of the sperm bank of the institute. .In the Ukrainian red and white dairy breed, 10 plant lines (Improver, Supreme, Hanover, Mayerdeil, Regal, Inhancer, Kavaer, Dinamnik, Nagit, Dayrimen) were derived, in the Ukrainian beef line - Euphemio line, Eoiziano; in the black and white dairy - the line of the Sudina. The gene reserves of semen of these ancestors of the lines are stored in the sperm bank for more than 20 years for use in prospective breeding.
Scientists of the sperm bank determined the optimal number of sperm dosages for each breeding formation that needs to be preserved. To lay the line it is necessary to have 5,0 thousand spermodoses from its ancestor and 2,0 thousand of his best sons. From all bulls of local breeds is laid for a long preservation of 1,0 thousand spermodozes. The technology of deep freezing of sperm of other animal species (stallions, pigs) was worked out; the possibility of influencing certain factors on sperm in the course of their long-term storage was studied. It was found that, the duration of preservation of the gene pool stocks of semen of bulls from the selected breeds is determined by the level of their breeding value on a specific useful basis.
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