THE MAIN REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GENOCATION OF THE GENE-FOUND STAIN IN POVERTY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ACTIVITY OF THE GENE-FUNDING ECONOMY
In recent years, farms of different categories of Ukraine, including tribal, are intensively imported pigs from different countries of the world, which destroy domestic pigs. In the middle of the last century, the Global Community Action Plan on Biodiversity Conservation, which has been supported in Ukraine, has been developed by the world community, for the leading role of FAO, to extend the duration of the existence of a breed or domesticated animal population. Practically for all kinds of animals, including domesticated ones, and not only agricultural ones, developed methods of preservation of their gene pool, defined forms and methods of their conservation, calculated funds for the reimbursement of breeding of non-competitive breeds of animals and other measures, but no basic – no effective legislative framework has been developed that would contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in the animal world in Ukraine.
The purpose of the research is to highlight the basic, standardized requirements for the creation and functioning of the gene pool of the herd in pig breeding, breeding methods, increase the number of the main population, the number of lines and families necessary for the conservation, reproduction and rational use of the gene pool of breeds, the conditions of keeping and feeding animals, their Identification, registration, evaluation, confirmation of origin, etc.
Material and research methods. The main requirements for the gene pool herd in pig breeding have been developed through the use of the regulatory framework of the livestock sector in Ukraine, including the Guidelines for the boning of pigs, the Regulations on the procedure for attestation and admission to reproduction of pedigrees for breeding purposes, the Orders of the Ministry of Education of the UIA, the Guidance on conducting immunogenetic studies, DNA - Testing, cytogenetic control, standardized feeding and feeding requirements, and the EU directive on identification and registration of pigs, the management of the breed s books chystoporodnosti animals.
Research results. In pig breeding, the gene pool herd should be formed on the basis of a leading breeding herd of the breed whose main activity is aimed at preserving the gene pool of the breed. Preservation in gene pool herds is subject to pure-bred animals, both main and local, as well as foreign breeds, types and lines of pigs, which are bred and kept on the territory of Ukraine.
The number of main sows in the gene pool should be not less than 100 heads, and the main boars must be at least 10 heads. Each genealogical line or family in the gene pool herd should have 2-3 branches with 2-3 sons or daughters.
The gene pool of the herd in pig breeding should be the leading breeder herd, which is subordinated to 2-3 breeding herds, which purposefully exchange tribal material with it. The basic method of breeding animals in gene pool herds is pure breeding. In some cases, during the implementation of state and sectoral breeding programs in livestock, approved by the Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine and the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences, the use of introductory crossings is permissible. They relate animals to purebred animals, are recorded in the pedigree book, and also trade in animals of the gene pool of the herd in accordance with the current legislation and the requirements of the European Union.
Selection pressures during the selection of animals in the gene pool should remain at the median level in the flock. Selection of animals in the gene pool of the individual individually, according to intra-group signs. Intra-group selection is carried out using inbreeding of moderate degrees in 2-3 generations with further cross-section.
Estimates of animals at their own productivity in the gene pool of the herd according to the current normative documents. Herbs in gene pool herds are selected according to pedigree, individual characteristics and pedigree value. Kennels-pedigrees used in the gene pool of the herd, certify and evaluate the quality of the descendants in the conditions of specialized control and testing stations. If among the offspring of the barn more than 50% of the animals have development and productivity indicators at the level of requirements of the first class and below, there are cases of genetic anomalies, and the safety of the livestock is less than 80% - the pedigree is discarded from the herd and the family disposed of this way To prevent its reuse. Indicators of development and productivity of animals in the gene pool are to meet the requirements of the "elite" class for the breed in accordance with the Guidelines for the boning of pigs.
Numbers pigs in the gene pool in accordance with the requirements of the Instructions for boning pigs. Identification and registration in the state automated database - The register of breeding animals is subject to all the main breeds and main sows that are sown or kept in the gene pool of the herd, regardless of the form of ownership and subordination. Identify pigs in the gene pool of the herd according to the results of the confirmation of origin, conducted using modern genetic methods in accordance with the requirements of the current instructions. Animals are identified using two pairs of ear tags of the established sample for identification of pigs during their transfer to the main herd.
For the purpose of long-term storage of tribal (genetic) resources, it is necessary for the National Bank of Genetic Resources to transfer the semen of the kennels of all available gene pool stock lines. From each line it is necessary to store not less than 10 spermodozes, with periodic, once every 2-3 years, replenishment of the bank by material from new or the same parent, provided that they exist. A similar approach should be applied to genetic material from females of different families.
The level of feeding of pigs should ensure the manifestation of their genetic potential. Hold breeding pigs in gene pool herds in accordance with the requirements of state standards. Conclusions To create a gene pool of herds in pig breeding, it is necessary to follow standardized requirements. We believe that the status of a pedigree subject in pig breeding, a "gene pool economy", may be assigned not only to those farms that, according to the "Procedure for the conferment of the appropriate status to breeders in livestock breeding and Technological requirements for selection breeding and breeding work in the field of beekeeping "Have a herd or herds of endangered breeds, types, populations of animals, but also leading breeding herds of all breeds of pigs in Ukraine that meet the above requirements, in order to preserve them. In the pig breeding industry, as well as in other sectors of livestock breeding in Ukraine, the breeds are not officially identified as endangered.
In addition, it is necessary not only to establish requirements for gene pool farms, which are not very easy to implement, but also to provide their state support.
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