BANK OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES OF INSTITUTE OF ANIMALS BREEDING AND GENETICS ND. A. M.V.ZUBETS OF NAAS SYSTEM OF ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF UKRAINE
Introduction. Conceptual framework system biodiversity in livestock include a combination of a set of measures aimed at the conservation and repopulation animals - the preservation of genetic diversity in situ in vitro and preservation of genetic diversity through the accumulation of genetic material and its cryopreservation as germ and somatic cells, zygotes, tissues (ex situ in vitro). Gene pool facilities require maintenance system to produce the required number gene pool products, the main criterion of evaluation which is playing the typical breed characteristics and features. The unifying element in the system of biodiversity - a Bank of Animals of genetic resources of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS, which is attributed to objects of national heritage.
Relevance of the creation and operation of the bank animal genetic resources of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS teeth caused by rapidly narrowing biodiversity in general and the diversity of farm animals in particular. According to the ratified November 29, 1994 the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine "Convention on Biodiversity" Pan-European strategy and objectives of conservation of biological and landscape diversity Bank animal genetic resources of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS performs the task of enhancing the role of agriculture in maintaining biodiversity and fostering international cooperation for the conservation of genetic material of small species and endangered species according to the objectives of science and technology program number 37 "The system works in populations and biodiversity conservation of genetic resources of agricultural animals" ("Saving gene pool breeds").
It operates as a scientific and technological structure that provides storage and preservation of national and global gene pool of small, local and endangered species, populations and genotypes of rare farm animals. According to current trends driving the selection and breeding of livestock Ukraine and focusing on the short term, bank of sperm Institute also provides storage and rational use of better breeding material in the framework of breeding programs and improving the genetic potential productivity of animals.
The purpose of this study was to conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis of genetic material stored in the bank of Animal of Genetic Resources of Institute of Animals Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS.
Material and methods of research. A description of the genetic material that is deposited in the bank of animal genetic resources of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS the results of the inventory on January 1, 2017 and acts of reception and transmission. Analyzed information forms the primary account (1-mol and 1-beef) and certificates of origin bulls.
To characterize the gene pool of animals breeding materials included books of evaluation on the quality sires and progeny data directory bulls allowed to use in the selection process.
Results. Bank Animal of Genetic Resources was formed on the basis of the Republican gene pool bank of sperm, which was established in 1976 under former Ukrainian Research Institute Breeding and Artificial insemination of cattle (now the Institute of Animals Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS.
Forming of animal genetic resources IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS was due to tribal enterprises, which sperm came from almost all regions of Ukraine. Since the gene pool of the National Bank of sperm of animal genetic resources deposited 26.043 thousand sperm doses of 44 bulls who participated in developing Ukrainian Beef breed, and founder of the Ukrainian Beef breed lines. The bank remains Institute of semen sires - the pioneers of related groups sperm are used to display the Ukarainian Beef breed: 81 Eoiziano, 2317 Eymo, 274 Desant and 382 Eufemio (Chianina), 5203 Juncker, 8574103527 Zheriko (Charolais) and founder of the factory line - 0988 Anchar (Ukrainian Beef). Also, the bank laid sperm factory line Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy cattle - 897 Elbrus.
Now bank of sperm of Institute holds more than 145.3 thousand sperm doses outstanding bulls 16 dairy and 14 beef breeds in the number of 87.4 thousand doses of 116 sires and 38.6 thousand. Doses from 77 bulls beef breeds which is intended for use directly in selection and breeding work with breeds. To implement the program "Preservation of the gene pool of breeds" in the Bank of animal genetic resources generative cells remain in an amount of 19.5 thousand sperm doses of 27 bulls and four local endangered breeds (Ukrainian Whiteheaded, Lebedyn, Ukrainian Gray and Carpathian Brown). If necessary, use genetic material of these species in gene pool herds in the future will make it possible to recover the lost line.
During 2011- 2013 the specialists studied indicators mobility, dynamic characteristics of movement and survival defrosting bull sperm stored in a bank animals genetic resources of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS using computer analyzer Sperm Vision company «Minitub» (USA). Indices straight-forward motion and absolute bull sperm survival rate for different shelf life.
The Institute staff conducted molecular genetic evaluation of genotypes bulls for loci QTL (k-Cn, βLG, GH (dairy and cattle breeds) TG, CAPN1 530, MSTN), ISSR-markers using a as being primers for fragments of dinucleotide and trinucleotide microsatellite locus (ACC) 6G, (GAG) 6C, (AG)9C, (GA)9C and microsatellite markers that are included in the list of recommended ISAG (BM1824, BM2113, INRA023, SPS115, TGLA122, TGLA126, TGLA227, ETH10, ETH225 and ETH3). The information for the studied markers allows you to make more detailed description of the genetic diversity of planted material stored in a bank of genetic resources of animals IABG.
The staff of the Institute and other academic Institutions in the system of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, which performs research program NAAS "Saving gene pool breds" continues to work to build a bank of animal genetic resources.
Also, the Institute formed DNA bank of somatic cells and tissues of various farm animals, with appropriate breeding and genetic characteristics of genetic material.
To enhance the role of the bank of Institute of Animals Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS in the management of genetic resources and conservation of biodiversity in the future of its formation should be based on the basis that from commercial breeds of farm animals lay biological material only from their greatest representatives, and for indigenous, local and endangered breeds - representatives from the widest possible range of different genealogical structure that will characterize the entire population.
Conclusions. Formation of the bank and its functioning is not only the accumulation and cryopreservation of genetic material of all kinds of animals, and in ensuring the implementation of scientific programs to maintain the diversity and specificity of gene pool facilities and breeding, biotechnology and other scientific research.
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