NFORMATION SYSTEM IN ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AS A COMPONENT OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
In accordance with international obligations in the context of the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Animals in Ukraine, separate articles of the Law "On Tribal Livestock" and a number of by-laws are directed. The scientific institutions of the system of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine developed the theoretical bases and components of the strategy of conservation of biodiversity of domestic livestock, based on which the analysis of the dynamics of populations of the main types of farm animals, assessment of the level of risk of disappearance of rocks with the development of methods for their conservation in situ and ex situ.
The purpose of the research is to highlight the individual elements of the strategy of preserving the breeding diversity of farm animals in Ukraine, including the inventory of non- numerous breeds, the assessment of the possibility of their reproduction at the expense of biological material of cryobanks, and the development of the main components of the information system of biodiversity of farm animals in accordance with international requirements.
Material and methods of research. The status of domestic local breeds of farm animals in the breeding subjects in livestock farming is determined by the inventory of herds, as well as data from the State Register of Registry for 2011 and 2015. The presence of sperm of breeders of various breeds and species that can be used to reproduce endangered populations is confirmed by data from the Bank of Animal Genetic Resources at the Bank of Genetic Resources of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. М.V.Zubets of NAAS. Monitoring of the status of local domestic breeds of cattle, pigs, horses and sheep in the breeding subjects in the livestock sector of Ukraine for the period of 2011-2015 has shown the instability of the condition in the gene pool herds for reducing the stock population in most of them. Positive dynamics is observed only in the white-headed Ukrainian breed of dairy cattle, where the number of cows increased by 110 goals from 2011 to 2015.
During the aforementioned period, breeders of cattle of gray Ukrainian breed (2 farms), brown Carpathian breed (1 farm) and Swan breed (3 farms), pigs of Mirgorod breed (4 farms), Ukrainian steppe white Breeds (3 farms), sheep of the Ukrainian mountain-Carpathian breed (6 farms) and Sokolsk breed (2 farms), hutsul breed horses (3 farms), which led to a decrease in the total number of these breeds, including mat OK. The number of heads of Hutsul breed of horses was reduced to 50 heads, the bright sokilskoy breed of sheep – up to 150 heads, and the sow of Ukrainian steppe pigeon breed – up to 29 heads. Such a number of breeding stock in the above- mentioned breeds has passed the minimum permissible limit for the existence of a population that for horses is 70 mothers, 200 sheep and 200 mothers and 100 mothers. Cows of brown Carpathian breed in subjects of tribal affairs in livestock breeding have not become at all. Undoubtedly, breeds, if desired, can be revived and expanded by the abundance of both natural and artificial reproduction methods. For this purpose, the Bank of Genetic Resources of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. М.V.Zubets of NAAS has created a sufficient supply of semen from the pedigree in a deeply cooled state, and in farms, for certain species of animals, there are still viviparous. Moreover, if sheep breeding and pig breeding by means of artificial insemination can restore one or two lines, then cattle breeding opportunities are considerably larger given the presence of semen in the institute's cryobank. In the system of animal genetic resources management, along with inventory and certification, the definition of breeds necessary for conservation, the development of genetic monitoring systems, the choice of conservation methods, the creation of a network of gene pool farms, kriobank, etc., specially places the establishment and operation of an information system that would be With the global network and ensured the availability of information. Taking into account that its development should start with the establishment in Ukraine of the institution (the main information and selection center of animal husbandry), which would be subordinated to the Ministry of Agrarian Policy of Ukraine and was engaged in the development of methodology and improvement of the current normative base in the field of livestock, and also performed the following functions:
- accumulation of primary information about animals kept in controlled farms;
- verification of information on the origin of animals;
- determination of breeding value of animals and formation of information on the results of animal assessment;
- formation and maintenance of the registration system of
The automated information center of the center should be in close cooperation with the Unified State Register of Animals, as well as databases of automated information systems used by animal owners to conduct breeding records in the holdings of animals through the exchange files of the established format.
The automated system includes information resource (pedigree data, animal evaluation results, statistical and analytical information), as well as software and hardware complex and telecommunication network, for use of which will be conducted:
- automated collection of data on breeding animals and storage of these data;
- automated assessment of breeding animals and storage of the results of such assessment;
- generate reports and access to data on breeding animals and the results of their evaluation by authorized users of this
Processed information on the automated system will be obtained by animal owners, breeding centers, breed associations, state authorities, actors engaged in animal trade, etc. The automated information system, or rather its individual components, is being tested at the network of research facilities of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, which maintains cattle of dairy and meat production areas. As a result of the development of an automated breeding system in dairy and beef cattle breeding, it will be harmonized for other livestock sectors, which will ultimately enable the creation of a national livestock breeding information system that meets international standards and protects the state from a number of negative consequences.
Conclusions. In order to form a domestic system of breeding and preservation of biodiversity of domestic breeds in the process of livestock production, it is necessary to create a centralized automated informational system from tribal affairs that would meet international standards.
The first steps in the formation of the information system in livestock are the establishment of an establishment (the creation of the main information and selection center for livestock industry), the development or adjustment of the regulatory framework in the field of livestock, the creation of a database of animals, animal testing and the formation of massifs of information that will be received by the interested Individuals and organizations.
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