THEORETICAL, METHODOLOGICAL, SCIENTIFIC AND INSTITUTIONAL BASICS OF FORMATION OF BANK OF FARM ANIMAL GENETICS RESOURCES OF INSTITUTE OF ANIMAL BREDDING AND GENETICS NAMED M.V.ZUBETS OF NAAS
The authors has demonstrated the global nature of the problem of domesticated animal gene pool preservation caused by intensive using some transboundary breeds and reduction in the number of aborigen and local ones. Ignoring this problem leads to loss of biodiversity, the restoration of which with traditional methods of breeding work is not possible. The main aim of the article to highlight the key milestones of forming of the theory and methodology of farm animal gene pool preservation, contribute of Ukrainian scientists to the development of the some specific approaches.
The prerequisite of the development and the role of the Bank of farm animal genetic resources of IABG named M.V.Zubets of NAAS in the system of biodiversity preservation were highlighted. As its prototype we considered the Republican Sperm Repository of Central Experimental Station of Artificial Insemination (Brovary). The article shows that solving of problem of farm animal gene pool preservation should be based on a combination of the whole complex of factors: theoretical and methodical, organizational, economic and technological. In the last decades Ukrainian scientists have developed organizational foundations of farm animal gene pool preservation; its basic principle is breed adaptation to the certain climatic zones. They have introduced the seven main organizational forms of the domesticated animal preservation including gene pool population, gene pool herd, relicted animal farm, collections’ nursery, farm of gene pool reserve, gene pool reproductor, bank of animal gene pool resources and other banks. They have initiated the development of the concept of creation and placement gene pool objects, its main link is bank of animal gene pool resources.
The article shown that twelve research institutes of National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine carry out scientific program "Preservation of animal’s gene poll". The Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics named M.V.Zubets of NAAS is main institution that coordinates its activities. Bank of Animal Gene Pool Resources of institute has been recognized as a national treasure in 1986. Since 2009 Ukraine is a member of the European Regional Focal Point for Animal Genetic Resources at FAO.
The authors state that IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS has developed a methodology for integrated assessment, management and long-term storage of gene pool resources. The scientists of the institute have introduced methods of genetic and population monitoring of the gene pool herds and systems of regulation and optimization of the number of the gene pool populations through a combination of biotechnological and genetic technologies of cryopreservation of sperm, embryos, oocytes, primary germ cells and DNA, directed selection and creation of virtual cryopreserved gene pool herds. They have identified categories of the gene pool objects for storage and optimal size of deposit, developed requirements for genetic material of each gene pool object of the different species of farm animals, as well as standards of main parameters of the gene pool micropopulations for the some species.
The contribution of scientists of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS in the development of the conceptual foundations of preservation of animal genetic resources as a cultural and intellectual heritage of the nation was concretized.
The authors used the special historical and scientific methods of research.
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