MODERN CONDITION AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE UKRAINIAN WHITEHEAD BREED
The article shows the state of Ukrainian Whiteheaded cattle, which includes distribution of cattle, the number of animals belonging to respective bloodlines, evaluation of young animals with live weight in the process of growing and milk production of cows during the first lactation. It reflects the historic development of the breed when it was colonism whiteheaded cattle, which turned into the original breed, undergone a significant expansion in livestock and increase of productivity, decreased in the number, was as basis for creation of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed and now bred only in one breeding farm. Visual estimation of animal exterior showed good development of cows and calves and their belonging to the dairy type. In the vast majority the cows of the herd have a black suit, a white head with " glasses" around the eyes, white belly, udder, lower legs and brush of the tail. The youngsters aren’t consolidated by the exterior, and among them there are animals which are not typical for Ukrainian Whiteheaded breed. The young animals have some lag in live weight behind the breed standard  to 7 months’ age with exceeding of this trait in certain periods quite significantly in the future. It was established that selection of heifers on live weight will be effective at the early age (1-5 months), given the coefficient of variation of live weight – 22,63-30,21% and will not have a significant influence in the future.
Milk yields of first-calf heifers vary considerably depending on the origin. The milk yield of first-calf heifers in the herd was 4238,5 kg on average, the heifers belonging to Mart 171 and Ozon 417 bloodlines had the best milk performance – 4483,1 and 4254,9 kg accordingly. The most aligned milk yield during the first lactation was in the cows belonging to Ozon 417 bloodline, the limits of the trait are 4128,5-4327,4 kg with the average value by the line 4254,9 kg. In contrast, the first-calf heifers of Ryezvyi 33 bloodline with average milk yield 4048,9 kg had limits of the trait 2199,3-4736,1 kg. Even greater range in cows’ milk yield during the first lactation R= 4939 kg (limits 1687 – 6626 kg) is characterized for the herd in general, it shows, on the one hand, the possibility of qualitative improvement of cows’ productivity due to selection on the investigated trait and lack of selection in the herd on the other hand. It was established that daughters of bull Chardash belonging to Ryezvyi 33 bloodline produced 4736,1 kg of milk for 305 days of the first lactation with fat content 3,6%, whereas Zlak’s descendants of the same line were characterized by the lowest milk yield for the first completed lactation – 2199,3 kg with fat content 3,7% and the average value by the line – 4048,9 kg of milk, fat content 3,6%. Similar variability of first-calf heifers’ milk yields, depending on the origin, is typical for other bloodlines of Ukrainian Whiteheaded breed.
To increase milk productivity of Ukrainian Whiteheaded cows is recommended to repeat successful combinations of parental forms, and to preserve the breed – to carry out an objective assessment of animals by a range of traits, given the efficiency of selection of heifers on live weight at early age.
2. Aleksandrov, A. I., and L. A. Moskalenko. 1966. Rezul'taty skreshhivaniya belogolovogo ukrainskogo skota s bykami gerefordskoy porody – The results of crossing Ukrainian whitehead breed with Hereford bulls. Molochno-myasnoe sko-tovodstvo – Dairy and beef cattle. Kyiv. 5:99–102 (in Ukrainian).
3. Yatsenko, O. Yu., and F. F. Eysner. 1953. Bilogolova ukrai'ns'ka poroda – Ukrainian whitehead breed. Velyka rohata khudoba – Cattle. Kyiv, Derzhsil'hospvydav. 207–209 (in Russian).
4. Zorin, I. H. 1956. Bilogolova ukrai'ns'ka poroda – Ukrainian whitehead breed. Velyka rohata khudoba – Cattle. Kyiv, Derzhsil'hospvydav, 304–314 (in Ukrainian).
5. Sirats'kyy, Y. Z. 1998. Bilogolova ukrai'ns'ka poroda– Ukrainian whitehead breed. Pleminni resursy Ukrayiny – Tribal resources of Ukraine. Kyiv, Ahrarna nauka. 13–14 (in Ukrainian).
6. Kurash, V. Н., V. M. Bulka, A. P. Kruhlyak, B. Ye. Podoba, and R. O. Stoyanov. 1999. Bilogolova ukrai'ns'ka poroda – rezerv spadkovogo materialu, adaptovanogo do umov Ukrai'ny – Ukrainian whitehead breed – reserve of genetic material adapted to the conditions of Ukraine. Rozvedennya i henetyka tvaryn – Animal Breeding and genetics. 31–32:132–133 (in Ukrainian).
7. Biryukova, K. S. 1963. Biloholova ukrayins'ka poroda – Bald Ukrainian breed. Pleminna robota z porodamy velykoyi rohatoyi khudoby – Breeding work with breeds of cattle. Kyiv, 272–293 (in Ukrainian).
8. Biryukova, K. S. 1970. Minlyvist' i spadkovist' deyakykh hospodars'ko-korysnykh oznak pry skhreshchuvanni biloholovoyi ukrayins'koyi porody z symental's'koyu – The variability and inheritance of some economically useful traits in crosses of Ukrainian whitehead breed with simmentalskaya. Molochno-myasnoe skotovodstvo – Dairy and beef cattle. Kyiv. 19:64–70 (in Ukrainian).
9. Boyko, V. P. 1981. Belogolovaya ukrainskaya poroda – Ukrainian whitehead breed. Porody krupnogo roga-togo skota Ukrainy v istoricheskom razvitii i ikh otsenka po molochnoy produktivnosti – Breeds in the Ukraine's historical development and their assessment on dairy consumption. Kiev, 54–60 (in Ukrainian)
10. Kravchenko N. A., and I. Z. Siratskiy. 1961. Byki belogolovoy ukrainskoy porody, nakhodyashchiesya na Tsentral'-noy opytnoy stantsii po iskusstvennomu osemeneniyu sel'skokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh – Ukrainian white-headed bulls of the breed, located at the Central experiment station of artificial insemination of farm animals Catalog. Kyiv. 30–32. 10.
11. Zubets, M. V., V. P. Burkat, Yu. F. Mel'nik, I. P. Petrenko, O. F. Khavruk, A. P. Kruglyak, V. E. Kuznetsov, M. I. Bashchenko, V. B. Bliznichenko, I. P. Guzev, A. G. Kostyuk, B. E. Podoba, O. P. Chirkova, I. S. Volenko, V. І. Ladika, and T. S. Yanko. 1997. Genetika, selektsiya i biotekhnologiya v skotovodstve – Genetics, breeding and biotechnology in animal-breeding. Kyiv, BMT, 722 (in Russian).
12. 2004. Instruktsiya z bonituvannya velykoyi rohatoyi khudoby molochnykh i molochno-m?yasnykh porid – Manual for the appraisal of cattle for dairy and dairy-meat breeds. Kyiv, 76 (in Ukrainian).
13. Yefimenko, M. Ya., M. H. Porkhun, M. Y. Chekhivs'kyy, A. V. Boyars'ka, and V. M. Bulka. 2008. Stan zberezhennya henofondu biloholovoyi ukrayins'koyi porody na suchasnomu etapi –The state of preservation of the gene pool of Ukrainian whitehead breed at the present stage. Rozvedennya i henetyka tvaryn –Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, Ahrarna nauka 42:82–87 (in Ukrainian).
14. Klassen, Kh., and A. Solovyov. 1934. Biloholova kolonists'ka khudoba – White colonists cattle. Porody velykoyi rohatoyi khudoby na Ukrayini –The cattle breeds in the Ukraine. Kharkiv, Derzhsil'hospvydav Dergisi, 50–70 (in Ukrainian).
15. Kravchenko, M. A. 1958. Pro pleminnu robotu z biloholovoyu ukrayins'koyu khudoboyu – Breeding work with the white-headed Ukrainian cattle. Sotsialistychne tvarynnytstvo – Socialist animal husbandry. 10:43–49.
16. Osypchuk, O. S. 2014. Embriobank ukrai'ns'koi' bilogolovoi' porody yak element funkcionuvannya genofondovogo kriostata avtohtonnyh porid Ukrai'ny – Embrook Ukrainian whitehead breed as part of the functioning of the cryostat genofondul autochthonous breeds of Ukraine. Materialy ХII Vseukrayins'koyi naukovoyi konferentsiyi molodykh vchenykh ta aspirantiv, prysvyachenoyi pam"yati aka-demika UAAN Valeriya Petrovycha Burkata (13 berez. 2014 r.) – Materials of the XII all-Ukrainian scientific conference of young scientists and graduate students, dedicated to the memory of academician of the Ukrainian Academy of agrarian Sciences Valery Petrovich Berkata . Kyiv, 50–51 (in Ukrainian).
17. Palans'kyy, V. I. 1973. Polipshennya stada biloholovoyi ukrayins'koyi porody v plemzavodi «Antoniny» – Improved herds of Ukrainian whitehead breed in the stud farm «Antonia». Molochno-myasnoe skotovodstvo – Dairy and beef cattle. 32:18–21 (in Ukrainian).
18. Palans'ky, V. I., and L. M. Romanov. 1973. Polimorfni bilky u koriv bilogolovoi' ukrai'ns'koi' porody ta i'h zv'yazok iz shvydkistyu molokoviddachi – Polymorphic proteins in cows Ukrainian whitehead breed and their relationship with the speed of a maximize. Molochno-myasnoe skotovodstvo – Dairy and beef cattle. Kyiv. 31:55–57 (in Ukrainian).
19. Podoba, Yu. V. 2013. Polimorfizm mitohondrial'noi' DNK u tvaryn siroi' ukrai'ns'koi' ta ukrai'ns'koi' bilogolovoi' porid velykoi' rogatoi' hudoby – Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA in animals of the grey Ukrainian white breeds cattle. Visnyk Sums'koho natsional'noho ahrarnoho universytetu – Bulletin of Sumy national agrarian University. 7:208–211 (in Ukrainian).
20. Kharchuk, I. T. 1980. Molochna produktyvnist' pomisey pry pohlynal'nomu skhreshchuvanni bilo-holovoyi ukrayins'koyi porody z chorno-ryaboyu – Milk yield of the hybrids at absorbing crossing of Ukrainian whitehead breed with black-and-white. Rozvedennya ta shtuchne osimeninnya velykoyi rohatoyi khudoby – Breeding and artificial insemination of cattle. 12:38–43 (in Ukrainian).
21. Fylypovs'kyy, O. K., V. P. Ust'yantsev, Z. M. Byk, and B. L. Blomkvist. 1929. Materiyaly obsliduvannya biloholovoyi koloniys'koyi rasy velykoyi rohatoyi khudoby – The survey data race white colonism cattle. Kiev. 31:358 (in Ukrainian).
22. Yurkovs'ka, M. Kh. 1970. Zalezhnist' molochnoyi produktyvnosti koriv biloholovoyi ukrayins'koyi porody vid formy ta rozmiriv vym"ya – The dependence of milk productivity of cows of Ukrainian whitehead breed species from the shape and size of the udder. Dairy and beef cattle – Kiev. 21:19–22 (in Ukrainian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.