EFFECT OF HYBRID BOARS OF IMPORT SELECTION ON MEAT PERFORMANCE OF PIGS
Pig breeding is an industry the development of which makes it possible to provide an increase in accelerated meat production due to the precocity of animals, feed recoupment by weight gain, maximum adaptability to the conditions of industrial production at complexes. This makes it possible to provide an uninterrupted supply of the population with products in the shortest possible time.
Final assessment of meat productivity is set after slaughter of animal on the basis of quantitative and qualitative carcass parameters, which are subdivided into slaughter and meat traits. Performance of pigs is determined by quantity of the products obtained from them and suitable to be used in food products. The life determination of meat traits makes it possible to carry out their preliminary assessment.
The aim of the research – to determine the effect of hybrid boars (Duroc × Pietrain) on the progeny’s meat performance.
A graded cutting and boning of five left half-carcasses of pigs of each genotype was conducted to determine the morphological composition and meat content in carcasses.
Analysing the data, it should be noted that animals of genotype (BLW×Y)×(D×P) by slaughter traits surpassed their coevals in the control group for pre-slaughter live weight by 2.0 kg (2%), weight of pair carcass – by 3.8 kg (5.4%), slaughter output – by 6.3 p.p., respectively.
Young animals of genotype (BLW×Y)×(D×P) surpassed coevals of other experimental groups on the pre-slaughter live weight by 0.6-1.6 kg, or 0.6-1.6%, by weight of pair carcass – by 0.4-1.1 kg, or 0.6-1.6%, by slaughter output – by 0.9-2.4 p.p. respectively.
The variation ratio for slaughter yield ranged 1.56-3.86%, indicating the uniformity of index in all the experimental groups.
The degree of variability in pair carcass weight was within 0.57-4.00%. A high variability of this trait was noted in the control group animals of genotype (BLW×BM)×D, and was 4.00%.
It was determined that the highest percentage in composition of chilled carcasses is taken by shoulder cut. So, for the young animals of genotype (BLW×Y)×(D×P), it takes 34.17%, that is 0.07 p.p. higher than in the control group and 0.21-0.27 p.p. than in other experimental groups.
The yield of spinal rib cut was higher with combination of the I experimental group and was 31.90%, that is 0.13 p.p. higher than with the control group hybrids and 0.3-0.9 p.p. compared with the other experimental genotypes. As for specific weight of the rear third part of carcass, the highest figure was observed in the animals of combination (BLW×Y)×(D×P) – 34.83%, that is 0.7 p.p. higher compared with animals in the control group. According to this indicator, young animals of genotype (BLW×Y)×(D×P) surpassed their coevals of the other experimental groups by 0.39-0.63 p.p. respectively.
The most valuable part of pork is the meat, consisting mainly of muscle tissue, concentrated in the skeletal muscle area. The definition of “meat” includes muscle, fat and connective tissue. The most important and useful part of the muscle tissue is proteins. Adipose (fat) tissue is a type of loose connective tissue, the cells of which are filled with fatty inclusions. The fat in pigs is deposited under the skin almost uniformly (depending on the genotype). Uniform deposition of adipose tissue between the muscle fiber bundles gives “marbling” to meat, thus enhancing its taste, nutritional and culinary values.
When analysing morphological content of chilled half-carcass of pigs of different genotypes, it was determined that the young animals of genotype (L×Y)×(D×P) by meat yield significantly surpassed the control group coevals by 1.8 p.p. (R≤0.001) and coevals of other experimental groups – by 0.7-1.1 p.p., respectively.
Carcasses of pigs of genotypes (BLW×BM)×(D×P) and (BLW×Y)×(D×P) also surpassed the control group of animals of genotype (BLW×BM)×D on the meat yield by 1.1-0.7 p.p. (P≤0.05), respectively.
Carcasses of pigs of genotype (L×Y)×(D×P) had less lard in the body: so, the lard content in carcass was by 1.5 p.p. lower compared with the control group animals of (BLW×BM)×D (P≤0.01).
Content of bones in carcasses of pigs of all the groups was within 11.5-11.7% with a trend towards reduction of this indicator in animals of experimental groups by 0.1-0.2 p.p. (P≤0.05).
For the comparative assessment of carcasses an indicative criterion is the ratio of tissues: meat/bone – “meat content index” and meat/fat – “lean meat index”.
Having analysed the data we can say that the highest index of “meat content” was obtained in animals of genotype (L×Y)×(D×P) – 5.62. When defining index of “lean meat”, animals of genotype (L×Y)×(D×P) surpassed all the groups of animals with 3.81 index, which exceeded the index for the animals in the control and experimental groups.
- It was determined that hybrid young animals of genotype (BLW×Y)×(D×P) surpassed their coevals of other experimental groups on the pre-slaughter live weight by 0.6-1.6 kg, or 0.6-1.6% by weight of pair carcass – by 0.4-1.1 kg or 0.6-1.6%, on slaughter output – by 0.9-2.4 percentage points, respectively.
- On the specific weight of rear third part of carcass the highest figure was observed in the animals of combination (BLW×Y)×(D×P) – 34.83%, that is 0.7 p.p. higher compared with animals in the control group. On this trait young animals of genotype (BLW×Y)×(D×P) surpassed their coevals of other experimental groups by 0.39-0.63 percentage points, respectively.
- When analysing the morphological content of chilled half-carcasses of pigs of different genotypes it was determined that young animals of genotype (L×Y)×(D×P) by meat yield significantly surpassed their coevals of the control group by 1.8 p.p. (P ≤ 0.001), and coevals of other experimental groups – by 0.7-1.1 percentage points, respectively. Combination of this genotype also showed higher index of “meat content” (5.62) and index of “lean meat” (3.81).
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