CHARACTERISTIC OF THE TAURIDE TYPE OF SOUTH BEEFCATTLE BREED
One of the directions of modern breeding programs for native beef breeds of cattle is organization of activities to preserve genetic variability under control of absorptive pressure of initial breeds and inbreeding level. Therefore, the topical is search of alternative ways of improving genetic potential of productivity and its phenotypic realization based on population monitoring organization, substantiation of theoretical and methodological approaches for determining breeding value and analysis of inheritance and consolidation of main breeding traits in beef cattle. Geographically isolated breeds of cattle, which include Southern Beef cattle, need special attention. Adaptability to extreme conditions of the steppe zone, achieved through interspecific hybridization and receiving animals with poly-heterozygous genotype, allows using the breed as a basis for developing beef cattle breeding in Southern Ukraine.
The success of producing breeding resources depends on many factors, one of which is to work in specific herds. The aim of the publication is characterization of Tauride type of Southern Beef cattle.
The research was based on the breeding cattle of Tauride type of Southern Beef breed in «Askaniiske» farm of Kherson region. Analysis of productive and reproductive qualities of cows, growth and development of young cattle was carried out according to the initial breedingrecords. Materials of electronic information database SUMS "ORSEK-M" as of 2015were used. Statistical processing was performed using Microsoft Excel software.
Live weight of cows is one of main traits in beef cattle breeding. Cows’ live weight after the first calving for Tauride type reliably increased by 5.97-7.04% (31-35 kg) accordingly, P > 0.999, due to improvement of growing conditions for replacement heifers and increase in live weight at the 1st mating to 380-390 kg.
Milk ability of cows reliably increased by 26.7 kg or 15.0% (204.9 against 178.2 kg), P > 0.999. Variability of the trait during consolidation by genotypes decreased by 1.26-1.30% and was 13.11-12.8-13.5% against 14.40-14.06-14.80% in 2008. Level of phenotypic variability is sufficient for further improvement of trait. The results caused by the trait selection of cows and improvement of paratypical factors, mainly feeding, during suckling period in calves.
Cows’ age at the1st calving in Tauride type unreliably decreased by 0.4 months or 12 days, the level of the trait in type with low share of zebu blood declined by 1 month, in type with high share of zebu blood – by 0.3 months. Cows’ age at the 1st calving in type with low share of zebu blood was reliably lower than in type with high share of zebu blood by 3 months (31.8 against 34.8 months), P > 0.999 and in Tauride type by 1.3 months (31.8 against 33.1 months), P > 0.99.
The number of cows with age at the 1st calving 36 months or less increased in Tauride type by 13% (from 74.1 to 87.1%), in type with low share of zebu blood – by 16.1% (from 76.5 to 92.6%), in type with high share of zebu blood – by15.8% (from 64.8 to 80.6%).
These results were obtained due to use proven bulls and assessed on own performance including daughters’ reproductive ability, tough selection of replacement heifers, improving conditions of their growing.
In addition, the important at reduction in age at the 1st calving is consolidation of genotypic heredity by zebu in animals’ genotypes, which in type with low share of zebu blood decreased by 2.93%, from 19.25% in 2008 to 16.32% in 2014, which contributed to prematurity and reduction in age at the 1st calving. "Share" of zebu heredity in type with high share of zebu blood increased by 2.68% (from 59.80 to 62.48%), reduction in age at the 1st calving – by 0.3 months or 9-10 days.
Reduction in cows’ age at the 1st calving in Tauride type accompanied by the increase in level of consolidation of this trait, as evidenced by the decreased coefficient of variability in Tauride type by 5.2% (16.5 to 11.3%) in comparison with the approbation period. But the level of phenotypic variability is sufficient for further improvement of this trait.
In 2011-2014 length of calving interval decreased in comparison with the approbation period for cows of Tauride type by 22 days (5.43%) from 405 days to 383 days, including in type with low share of zebu blood – by 28 days (6.87%) from 407 to 379 days, in type with high share of zebu blood – by19 days, 4.71%, from 403 to 384 days respectively.
During consolidation the number of cows with calving interval 365 days and less increased in Tauride type by 2.9% (from 47.7 to 44.8%), in type with low share of zebu blood – by 4.0% (from 48.7 to 52.7%), in type with high share of zebu blood – by 3.6% (from 38.7 to 42.3%). This length of calving interval and presence of cows with calving interval 365 days and less (42.3-52.7%) provide receipt of calf per cow annually.
In 2011-2014 output of calves per 100 cows and heifers was 92.5% on average, which exceeded the level of 2001-2008 by 2.8% (89.7%), calf survival to 7 months’ age – 97.3% (+ 7.2% to level of 2001-2008), output of calves at 7 months’ age per 100 cows and heifers – 90.1% (+ 9.3% to level of the previous period).
Analysing bull calves’ growth intensity and rate at consolidation determined that bull calves’ live weight at 12 months’ age increased by 2 kg (0.5%) in 2011-2014 and by 14 kg (3.7%) in 2014, and was 381-393 against 379 kg accordingly. Bull calves’ live weight in type with low share of zebu blood increased in comparison with the period of approbation by14 kg, 3.6% and by 8 kg (2%) – 393-399 kg accordingly; in type with high share of zebu blood – by 4 and 6 kg (1.1-1.63%) – 372-374 kg.
In comparison with the previous period (2006-2010) increase in bull calves’ live weight in Tauride type was 9 kg (2.4%) in 2011-2014 and 21 kg (5.6%) in 2014; increase in live weight in type with low share of zebu blood was 4 kg (1.0%) in 2014; in 2011-2014 bull calves’ live weight was on the level of 2006-2010 – 393-395 kg. In 2011-2014 bull calves’ live weight in type with high share of zebu blood was higher compared to level of 2006-2010 by 15 kg (4.2%), compared to 2014 – by17 kg (4.76%) and was 372-374 kg against 357 kg.
The variability of the trait during consolidation slightly decreased and was 9.2-15.4% in 2014.
During 2011-2014 bull calves’ growth rate in Tauride type increased in comparison with approbation period by 36 g (3.13%), in 2014 – by 128 g (11.4%) and was 1187-1277 g against 1149 g. In comparison with the previous period (2006-2010) increase in growth rate was 31-121 g (2.5-10.46%). The increase in growth rate in type with low share of zebu blood was 80-145 g (6.7-12%) – 1273-1322 g in 2011-2014 and 2014 against 1193 g (2008). In comparison with the previous period, increase in this trait was 27-92 g (2.16-7.38%) – 1273-1322 g against 1246 g.
Growth rate in type with high share of zebu blood during consolidation increased by 58-95 g (5.4-8.9%) – 1119-1156 g against 1061 g. In comparison with the previous period increase in growth rate was 26-63 g (2.4-5.76%) – 1119-1156 g against 1093 g.
These results were obtained without use of any growth stimulants and biologically active substances. The main method of improvement is intrabreed selection at systematic assessment of bulls on its own performance and progeny quality and use of bulls with the index of breeding values A ≥ 110,1 (on its own performance), B ≥ 101,1 (progeny quality) for reproduction with simultaneous improvement of paratypical factors.
Consolidation of genotypic and phenotypic heredity under breeding "in itself" is aimed at further improving the breeding and productive qualities of cattle and further differentiation of Tauride type on two genetic types by "heredity" share of zebu.
Since the time of approbation (2008), cows’ live weight after the 1st calving has increased by 31-35 kg (5.97-7.94%), P > 0.999, after the 2nd calving – by 0.5-1.85%. Age at the 1st calving declined for cows of Tauride type by 0.4 months or 12 days.
Growth intensity and rate increased by 10.46-12.0%. The influence of genotype on growth intensity and rate during periods of monitoring was 0.489-0.701 and it caused by "heredity" share of zebu.
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