EXTINCT FARM ANIMALS’ BREEDS OF UKRAINE
The industrialization since the beginning of the previous century led to the loss of a significant number of breeds. But it should be remembered, that the disappearance of a breed is not only the disappearance of an important unit that supplemented the uniqueness of a specific landscape, met the needs of a certain category of people who lived in this territory, performed certain rituals associated with traditions and territory, evolved with and complemented a certain culture and nation, but as well the breed – it is the genes, which were not revealed at that time, but in the future could provide people with the development of the latest technologies with new products, a new type of knowledge, skills and useful peculiarities.
The analysis of the literal source base of the past centuries confirms the disappearance of Polish, Red Smilyan, Ukrainian White-Backed, Black-and-White Podilian in cattle breeding, in sheep breeding – 9 breeds (Walahian, Pirni, Reshetilivska, Chushka, Mazayev Merino, Malich, Hutsulian, Chuntuk), in horse breeding – Streletsky, Germano-Bessarabian, Nogai breeds and Tarpan. 3 breeding populations have disappeared in pig breeding.
Disappeared in cattle breeding: the Polissian breed of cattle, which was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries on a large territory of Polissia (in 1926, on the right-bank Polissia, it numbered about 35.000 heads). By origin, the Polissian cattle were admitted a descendant of the ancient race that lived in Polissia since ancient times.
The animals were exceptionally hardy, resistant to diseases typical for the region, and had a certain productivity even in difficult conditions of unsatisfactory keeping.
The Red Smilyan breed of the beginning of the 20th century was spread in the area of the town of Smila, "from north to south along the railway through the town of Smila all the way to Horodyshche and Chhyrynsky district. This breed was "a branch of red steppe cattle, which, like Grey Ukrainian cattle, belonged to the group of steppe cattle." So, it would be interesting to investigate it as well.
At the beginning of the last century, the different varieties of spotted cattle of Podillia were spread over almost the entire territory of the Vinnytsia region (except for the northern part). Researchers estimate the presence of this livestock at the level of 100.000 heads at the beginning of the last century. This group included Black-and-White Podilian and Ukrainian White-Backed breeds.
Sheep breeding. Coarse-wool sheep have been bred on the territory of Ukraine for a long time, especially Reshetilivska and Sokilian sheep. In the literature, there is also information about the breeding of Wallahian sheep.
Horse breeding. Research in recent years suggests a high probability of domestication of horses in the territory of the steppes of Ukraine, so it would be especially interesting to study the behavior, characteristics, and variety of products of ancient horses of Ukrainian origin. However, this is no longer possible on at least 3 breeds of horses: Striletska, Germano-Bessarabian, Nogai and Tarpan. In addition, there is evidence that in Ukraine in the 17th century a breed of striped (tarantoid) horses was widespread. Ethnological studies also report on the existence of Steppe Ukrainian horse, bred in Zaporizhzhia, and Boykivian (boyki, perevinniki) horse breed in the Carpathians. The Ukrainian breed of horses became the basis for the formation of the Black Sea breed in the Kuban after the Cossacks of Zaporizhzhya Sich were resettled there in the 19th century.
Pig breeding. According to the National Coordinator of Genetic Resources from Ukraine in FAO until 2014, I.V. Guzev, three breed groups of pigs and one local population (European short-eared pig) have disappeared in Ukraine. According to ethnographers, Ukrainian black and brown breeds have long been predominant on the territory of Ukraine. So, it was the Ukrainian sub-population of European group of pigs. This group as well was characterized with yellowish, brown or white, mixed with black bristle color. There were as well individuals of gray or white color with black spots, small fangs were visible.
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