BREEDING HERITAGE OF DAIRY CATTLE OF UKRAINE – UKRAINIAN WHITE-HEADED BREED
Introduction. The locality of the population in terms of limited numbers in a certain area, inherent resistance to some diseases, undemanding to feeding conditions and maintenance at a relatively average level of productivity, at the same time the strength of the constitution - such characteristic features are characteristic of autochthonous breeds. The Ukrainian White-headed of dairy cattle is no exception.
Therefore, the main goal of the study is the phased consideration, i.e. generalization on issues of origin, level of productive traits, genealogical structure, obtaining unique animals with record values important for breeding. The main tasks of this work are evolutionary, from the point of view of the stages of formation of the breed at different time periods, taking into account the level of manifestation of economically useful features and the formation of structural units, both the initial ones that were used at the beginning and the modern ones (the ones that remained).
Research materials and methods. Research was conducted based on the analysis of data presented in open publications and statistical reporting materials. In general, retrospective and source research methods were used.
Research results. It has contradictions and hypotheses in its origin. The first hypothesis. The Ukrainian White-headed Cattle comes from Dutch cattle from the Groninger-type breed. A related feature of the two breeds is a peculiar coloration, namely a white head with so-called "glasses", belly and udder. The second hypothesis. According to V. P. Ustyantsev, there are differences in the type of two breeds. In addition, part of the colonies bought cattle in Volyn (Novograd-Volynskyi, Chervonoarmysk) with characteristic features, namely, the animals had a red color with "glasses" around the eyes and in "stockings", which theoretically can testify to the Ukrainian Whitehead Cattle as a locally created "spontaneous" selection in private farms. M. O. Starovyerov adds that the color of the breed is not the origin, besides, no sources of the 19th century have been found that would testify to the importation of the Groninger breed into the Ukrainian White-headed Cattle breeding center. The author also reminds that the vast majority of animals of the Groninger type of the Dutch breed had a black coat, while the Ukrainian White-headed Cattle at the stage of formation had a characteristic red coat. Regarding the type, M. O. Staroverov considers the Groninger type to be similar to the meat shorthorn, while the Ukrainian White-headed Cattle is a pronounced milk type obtained through selection.
The main disadvantages of the Ukrainian White-headed breed are low live weight; low fat content in milk and exterior defects, and advantages: long duration of economic use, strong type of constitution, undemanding to housing conditions and increase of productive signs due to improvement of feeding conditions. According to the official data of the census, the number of animals of the Ukrainian White-headed breed on January 1, 1935, 1939, 1945, 1951, 1964, 1969, and 1974 was 105.8 thousand, 230.6 thousand, 127.5 thousand, and 161.3 thousand, respectively 662.5 thousand, 520.9 thousand and 563.5 thousand.
According to the main breeding characteristics, it was noted that the milk productivity of cows is at the level of 3000 kg ... 3500 kg with a fat content of 3.80%, in breeding farms it is somewhat higher – 4000 kg ... 5000 kg. According to the exterior, namely, a significant drawback observed in the animals of the Ukrainian White-headed Cattle is sabre-likeness, as well as a narrow, roof-like, hanging butt. It should be noted that from 1926 to 1960, red and black cows of the Ukrainian White-headed breed were bred separately, which later formed two types and reduced the intensity of selection. Differentiation of types by color ensured an increase in milk by only 93 kg. Red-colored animals were concentrated in Zhytomyr and Kyiv regions, and black-colored animals were concentrated in Khmelnytsk region.
The genealogical structure at the beginning of the formation of the breed was represented by descendants of Yurka A-25, Yurka A-55, Breylak A-57 and Sokol A-637 lines. In the post-war period, breeding work on the formation of a genealogical structure was carried out with the progenitors of the Fikus 491, Landish KK-15, Hayka KK-3, Limon KK-1 and Zhargun KK-5 lines in the Borodyansky district and in the experimental farm "Terezino" of the Kyiv region. The creation of a linear structure of the Marta 171, Ozon VKKM-4 and Rezvoi VKK-3 bulls was carried out at the "Antonina" stud farm in the Khmelnytsk region.
As for the families, we should note the progenitors of the cows Orbita VK-430, Lyustra VKK-11, Ulitka VK-120, Mazurka VKK-34, Arka VKK-6, Forsunka VKKM-42, Neva 93, Yarmedyanka 102, Limfu 812, Orlytsya9413, Censurna 808, Lastochka 456, Pchilku 56, Chernushka 692. Regarding the duration of use of cows and longevity in particular, it should be noted that cows Lozu 282 (15 lactations 77197 kg), Udarnytsia 410 (12 lactations – 67554 kg), Oyra 484 (13 lactations – 63888 kg) and Usmishka 380 (13 lactations – 62661 kg), Tainu 896 (13 calves and 53608 kg of milk), Brovarnya 292 (12 calves and 65797 kg of milk) and Kryga 286 (12 calves and 53923 kg of milk).
The record holder of the breed should be considered the cow Orbita VK-43, which is an unsurpassed animal with a record milk yield of 12,339 kg with a fat content of 3.41% in the seventh lactation (the highest daily expectation of 53.4 kg), and for the eighth lactation, respectively, 8,424 kg and 4.05%.At the beginning of the 50s of the XIX century, it was allowed to crossbreed the Ukrainian White-headed Cattle with milk (Simmental, Black-and-White Estonian, Brown Latvian, Red Estonian) and meat (Aberdeen-Angus, Hereford, Kazakh Whitehead) breeds. In addition, imported animals of other breeds (Simmental, Swiss, etc.) were brought into the area of the breed's distribution, but over time, they disappeared due to unsatisfactory housing conditions.
Conclusions. Cattle of the dairy sector of productivity are a local and disappearing breed (farms of the Khmelnytsk region). There are contradictions and hypotheses about its origin, but in terms of numbers, especially at the initial stages of the creation of the breed in certain regions, the share in the overall structure ranged from 15.2% in Kyiv to 50.4% in Zhytomyr. In general, the share of Ukrainian White-headed Cattle animals in the total structure of breeds decreased from 4.1% in 1974 to 0.3% in 1985.
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