Keywords: paddlefish, genetic structure, locus, alleles, genotype, heterozygosis, сytogenetic indicator, micronucleus test


Goal. The studing of specificity of genetic variability by the loci of biochemical systems and cytogenetic indicators in groups of paddlefish caught at the ponds of the IF "Nyvka" of the Kyiv region and fish farm "Girskyi Tikich" of the Cherkasy region.

Methods. The analysis of the distribution of alleles and genotypes frequencies in paddlefish (Polyodon spathula W.) was carried out according to the loci of albumin (ALB), malatedehydrogenase (MDH, K.F., malic enzyme (ME, K.F., esterase (EST, K.F. and carbonic anhydrase (CA, K.F. For research were used methods of vertical polyacrylamide and horizontal starch electrophoresis with following histochemical staining and genotyping of alleles of investigated loci. The frequency of allelic and genotypic variants was calculated. The observed and expected levels of heterozygosity for each individual locus and the level of average heterozygosity were determined. It was calculated the Wright fixation index Fis. Statistical processing of experimental data was performed using the "Biosys-1" program.

It was carried out cytogenetic analysis in peripheral blood smears of paddlefish using the micronucleus test and analysis of apoptosis frequency.There were counted the occurrence frequency of erythrocytes with micronuclei (EMN), lymphocytes with micronuclei (LMN), binuclear lymphocytes (BNL) and apoptosis. Statistical probability of differences by the cytogenetic indicators was assessed using the Student's t-distribution.

Results. The analysis of variability of the genetic structure of paddlefish groups was carried out according to loci of biochemical systems of esterase, carbonic anhydrase, albumin, malatedehydrogenase, malic enzyme and cytogenetic indicators. The group of paddlefish from "Girsky Tikich" was differentiated by a significant advantage of the fast-migrating Ca F allele (0.717), compared to Ca S (0.283). The group of paddlefish from "Nyvka" was characterized by a high frequency of the Mdh F allele (0.724), compared to Mdh S (0.276). In both groups of paddlefish, the ALB locus stood out due to the significant predominance of the fast-migrating Alb A allele. It was observed the statistically significant excess of heterozygotes by the MDH locus (Р < 0.05) in the group from "Girsky Tikich" and by the EST and CA loci (Р < 0.05) in the group from "Nyvka". Other studied loci in both groups of paddlefish according to the distribution of observed and expected genotypes were balanced. The value of the fixation index showed a high level of genetic variability by the CA (FIS = -0.381) and EST (FIS = -0.476) loci, compared to those expected in the group from “Nyvka” and the MDH locus (FIS = -0.473) in the group of fish from “Girsky Tikicha".

According to cytogenetic indicators, the studied group from the farm "Girsky Tikich" was characterized by an medium value of EMN (2.8 ± 0.4‰) but, at the same time, a low level of apoptosis (0.8 ± 0.5‰). Ass to results of the comparative analysis of the same age groups of paddlefish caught in the same period in the farms "Nyvka" of the Kyiv region. and "Girsky Tikich" of the Cherkasy region. it was established that both groups of paddlefish are characterized by a different, but not high level of cells with micronuclei.

According to the frequency of apoptosis (1.2 ± 0.3‰) the groups of paddlefish from farm "Nyvka" was characterized by higher values. Statistically significant differences were determined by the frequency of EMN (Р < 0.005). However, the middle values of this indicator indicates about normal cellular homeostasis and favorable living conditions.

Conclusions. In general, the level of variability of the genetic structure at the studied loci in both groups of paddlefish was similar. This is indicated by the established values of the average heterozygosity level in the group of paddlefish from "Nyvka" (Hо = 0.517 ± 0.093) and group from "Girsky Tikich" (Hо = 0.580 ± 0.051) and which did not significantly differ from the values of the expected level of average heterozygosity (Hе = 0.419 ± 0.060 and 0.455 ± 0.029, in both farms respectively). The average values of the inbreeding coefficient (Fis) in the group from "Nyvka" (23.5%) and the group from "Girsky Tikich" (29.2%) are indicated about absence of inbreeding in the studied herds. The analysis of genetic variability indicated the similarity and homogeneity of the genetic characteristics of both groups of paddlefish, which indicates about possible common origin of these groups of fish.

The results of studies of paddlefish breeding herd from farms "Nyvka" and "Girsky Tikich" are demonstrated that these groups are characterized by low values of cytogenetic indicators, which indicates about stable state of their genetic apparatus.

Comparative analysis of the same age groups of paddlefish from farms "Nyvka" and "Girsky Tikich" showed statistically significant differences by the frequency of EMN (Р < 0.005), and that the last group was characterized a higher value of EMN (2.8 ± 0.4‰). Thus, the analysis of biochemical loci indicates about the similarity and homogeneity of the genetic characteristics of both groups of paddlefish, which may indicates about the common origin of these fish groups.

Also, as a result of cytogenetic studies, it was established that for an objective assessment of the heterogeneity of paddlefish breeding herds, it is necessary to analyze cytogenetic indicators in cells of both the erythrocyte and leukocyte series.


Onuchenko, O. V., O. M. Tretiak, and O. V. Kuleshov. 2003. Osnovy rybohospodarskoho osvoiennia veslonosa Polyodon spathula (Walbaum) – Basics of fishery development of the paddlefish Polyodon spathula (Walbaum). Kyiv, Vyshcha osvita, 111 (in Ukrainian).

Altuhov, Ju. P. 2003. Geneticheskie processy v populjacijah – Genetic processes in populations. Moskva, IKC ''Akademkniga", 431 (in Russian).

Tretiak, O. M., and S. I. Tarasiuk. 2011. Analiz henetychnoi struktury hrup veslonosa za okremymy henetyko-biokhimichnymy systemamy. Rybohospodarska nauka Ukrainy – Fisheries science of Ukraine. 1:50–57 (in Ukrainian).

Askari, Gh., A. Shabani, and H. K. Miandare. 2013. Application of molecular markers in fisheries and aquaculture. Scientific Journal of Animal Science. 2(4):82–88 (in English).

Ali, F. K., A. M. El-Shehawi, M. A. Seehy. 2008. Micronucleus test in fish genome: A sensitive monitor for aquatic pollution. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7(5):606–612. DOI:10.5897/AJB2008.000-5020 (in English).

Epifanio, J. M., J. B. Koppelman, M. A. Nedbal, and D. P. Philipp. 1996. Geographic variation of paddlefish allozymes and mitochondrial DNA. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 125(4):546–561. DOI: 10.1577/1548- 8659(1996)1252.3.CO;2 (in English).

Carlson, D. M., M. K. Kettler, S. E. Fisher, and G. S. Whitt. 1982. Low genetic variability in paddlefish populations. Copeia. 3:721–725. DOI: 10.2307/1444682 (in English).

Arhipchuk, V. V. 2008. Issledovanija v oblasti citogenetiki ryb i biotestirovanija : sbornik nauchnyh trudov – Research in the field of fish cytogenetics and biotesting : a collection of scientific papers. Kyiv, Relikvii, 536 (in Russian).

Hayashi, M., T. Ueda, K. Uyeno, K. Wada, N. Kinae, K. Saotome, N. Tanaka, A. Takai, Y. F. Sasaki, N. Asano, T. Sofuni, and Y. Ojima. 1998. Genotoxicity Assay Systems that Use Aquatic Organisms. Mutat. Researches. 399(2):125–133. DOI: 10.1016/s0027-5107(97)00251-0 (in English).

Andrade, V. M., J. Silva, F. R. Silva, V. D. Heuser, J. F. Dias, M. L. Yoneama, and T. R. Freitas. 2004. Fish as bioindicators to assess the effects of pollution in two southern Brazilian rivers using the Comet assay and micronucleus test. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 44:459–468. DOI: 10.1002/em.20070 (in English).

Heddle, J. A., M. C. Cimino, M. Hayashi, F. Romagna, M. D. Shelby, J. D. Tucker, P. Vanparys, and T. MacGregor. 1991. Micronuclei as an index of cytogenetic damage: рast, present, and future. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 18(4):277–291. DOI: 10.1002/em.2850180414 (in English).

Tretiak, O. M., Yu. M. Hlushko, and S. I. Tarasiuk. 2010. Sezonna minlyvist tsytohenetychnykh kharakterystyk u veslonosa. Rybohospodarska nauka Ukrainy – Fisheries science of Ukraine. 3:25–31 (in Ukrainian).

Tretiak, O. M. 2010. Systema naukovo obhruntovanoho rozvytku akvakultury veslonosa v Ukraini. Rybohospodarska nauka Ukrainy – Fisheries science of Ukraine. 2:3–25 (in Ukrainian).

Shaklee, J. B., F. W. Allendorf, D. C. Morizol, and G. S. Whitt. 1990. Gene nomenclature for protein-coding loci in fish. Transactions of the American

Fisheries Society. 119:2–15. DOI: 10.1577/1548-8659(1990)119<0002:GNFPLI>2.3.CO;2 (in English).

Davis, B. J. 1964. Disc electrophoresis. II. Method and application to human serum prоteins. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 121:404–408. (in English).

Harris, H., and D. A. Hopkinson. 1976. Handbook of enzyme electrophoresis in human genetics. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Comp., 620 (in English)

Korochkin, L. I., O. L. Serov, A. I. Pudovnik, A. A. Aronshtam, E. V. Polyakova, S. I. Maletskiy, and L. V. Borkin. 1977. Genetika izofermentov – Genetics isoenzymes. Moskva, Nauka, 275 (in Russian).

Stoika, Yu. O., N. M. Haranko, and V. V. Arkhypchuk. 200l. Rozrobka pryzhyttievoho mikroiadernoho testu na rybakh. Naukovi 3apysky – Scientific notes. Ternopil, 4:15–16 (in Ukrainian).

Davydov, O. N., Ju. D. Temnihanov, and L. Ja. Kurovskaja. 2006. Patologija krovi ryb – Pathology of fish blood. Kyiv, INKOS, 206 (in Russian).

Plohinskij, N. A. 1969. Biometriya – Biometrics. Moskva, Izd. Mosk. un-ta, 368 (in Russian).

Nei, M. 1972. Genetic distance between populations. The American Naturalist. 106(949): 283–292. DOI: 10.1086/282771 (in English).

Swofford, D. L., and R. B. Selander. 1981. Biosys-1: A Fortran program for the comprehensive analysis of electrophoretic data in population genetics and systematics. J. Heredity. 72:281–283 (in English).

Trofymenko, O. L., M. I. Hyl, and O. Yu. Smetana. 2018. Henetyka populiatsii – Genetics of populations. Mykolaiv, «Helvetyka», 254 (in Ukrainian).

Mendrishora, Р., Т. Nagornjuk, and S. Тarasjuk. 2016. Peculiarities of the genetic structure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) groups at the fish farm «Sloboda Banilov», Chernivtsi region. Rybohospodarska nauka Ukrainy – Fisheries science of Ukraine. 2:65–72. DOI: (in English).

Kurta, Kh. M., O. O. Malysheva, and V. H. Spyrydonov. 2018. Porivnialnyi analiz henetychnoi struktury veslonosa (Polyodon spathula) ukrainskykh populiatsii. Bioresursy i pryrodokorystuvannia – Bioresources and nature management. 10(3-4):193–201. DOI: (in Ukrainian).

How to Cite
Nahorniuk, T., Glushko, Y., & Tretiak, O. (2022). GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PADDLEFISH (POLYODON SPATHULA (WALBAUM, 1792)) BROOD STOCKS. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 64, 118-127.