STATE OF LIVESTOCK IN UKRAINE: MONITORING FOR 2021
Introduction. It is a well-known fact that agriculture and animal husbandry, in particular, are an integral part of the economy, which provides the country not only with financial deductions, but also forms the basis of food security through the production of raw materials, processing and production of food products for further consumption by the population.Research materials and methods. The purpose and objectives of the research were to monitor livestock production, where the main indicators are the total livestock, as well as its delineation by categories of farms and regions. Determine the number of animals by species, taking into account the breeding part and the natural and climatic zones of Ukraine. It is also planned to submit data on the volume of production of agricultural animal products.The number of agricultural species and the production of livestock products are presented from the annual statistical collection Animal Husbandry of Ukraine, and the breeding part is from the State Register of Breeding Subjects in Livestock Breeding for 2021.Research results. The number of animals on January 1, 2022 was 213335 thousand heads, of which 94.8% are poultry of all kinds, 2.6% pigs, 1.2% cattle, 0.7% rabbits, 0.5% sheep and goats and 0.1% horse. It should be noted that the number of cattle in enterprises is 38%, at that time –62% of the population. Accordingly, other types of farm animals have the following values: rabbits – 37.5% in enterprises and 72.5% in the population; pigs – 63.8% and 36.2%; sheep and goats – 15.3% and 84.7%; horses – 5.2% and 94.8% and poultry – 56.1% in enterprises and 43.9% in the population. The number of horses in Ukraine has the lowest value among agricultural species. As of January 1, 2022, there were 202243.1 thousand poultry in Ukraine, of which 113478.9 thousand. (56%) in enterprises and 88764.2 thousand heads (45%) in the population. Poultry was distributed by species as follows: chickens and roosters - 186623.0 thousand heads (111706.0 thousand heads (59.8%) in enterprises against 74917.0 thousand heads (40.2%) in the population); geese - 3430.4 thousand heads (57.4 thousand heads (1.7%) in enterprises against 3373.0 thousand heads (98.3%) in the population); ducks – 9959.9 thousand heads (195.8 thousand heads (1.9%) in enterprises against 9764.1 thousand heads (98.1%) in the population) and turkeys – 1510.7 thousand heads (845.0 thousand people (55.9%) in enterprises against 665.7 thousand people (44.1%) in the population). Rabbits are kept in all regions of Ukraine. As for beekeeping, in the above-mentioned period, 2686 thousand bee colonies were kept, including 37.1 thousand bee colonies or 1.4% in enterprises.3519.2 thousand heads were allocated to the active (breeding) part (except for beekeeping and fish farming), including cattle - 9.6%, pigs - 3.9%, sheep - 1.1%, horses - 0, 1%. In addition, the active part of the cattle population is divided by specialization, namely dairy and meat breeding, to which 320,000 head belong, respectively and 20.3 thousand heads. The breeding stock of the breeding part includes 188002 ewes, including: 141522 dairy cows and 8401 meat cows, 13757 main sows, 23123 ewes and 1-year-old ewes, and 1199 horses. A total of 530 breeding statuses were registered, including 377 in cattle breeding, 68 in pig breeding, 30 in sheep breeding, 39 in horse breeding and 16 in poultry breeding.The main statuses, according to the State Register of Breeding Subjects in Livestock Breeding, are breeding farms and breeders. 139 breeding farms in dairy cattle breeding and 27 statuses in meat breeding, 27 pig breeding farms, 11 sheep breeding farms, 19 horse breeding farms are registered. A significant part of the farms with the status of breeding breeders are engaged in breeding agricultural animals, namely, 187 in dairy and 24 in meat cattle breeding, 40 in pig breeding, 19 in sheep breeding, 20 in horse breeding. It should be noted that the share of the total stock in cattle breeding plants, pig breeding, sheep breeding and horse breeding is 52.5%, and in breeders, respectively, 47.5%. By breed, it is a population of 13 breeds of dairy and meat cattle, 10 breeds of pigs, 9 breeds of sheep and 10 breeds of horses, 7 crosses of chickens, 1 cross of ducks, 2 breeds of geese and 1 breed of ostriches. In addition, 20 species of fish and 2 species of bees are used. The average yield per cow in Ukraine for 2021 in all categories of farms was 5155 kg, including 6863 kg in enterprises, and 4604 kg in the population. In the breeding part of the cattle population, the amount is 8130 kg per cow.The analysis of the production of livestock products showed a wide range both in terms of the main indicators within agricultural species and in different forms of ownership. During the reporting period, 3329.8 thousand tons of agricultural animals were raised, including 2359.3 thousand tons or 71% by enterprises, and 970.5 thousand tons or 29% by households. According to the types of agricultural animals, the preference of live weight of poultry (55%), pigs (29%) and cattle (14%) was established. As of January 1, 2022, 2438.3 tons of slaughter weight of farm animal meat was produced, including 1720.4 tons, or 70%, in enterprises and 717.9 tons, or 30%, in households. As for reproduction indicators in cattle breeding, pig breeding and sheep breeding, the average yield of calves per 100 cows, piglets per 100 main sows, and lambs and kids per 100 sheep and goats in enterprises is 67 calves.8713.9 thousand tons of milk were produced in farms of all categories, including 2767.7 thousand tons in enterprises and 5946,2 thousand tons in private farms. 14071.3 million eggs were produced from poultry of all types in farms of all categories. units, including 7012.8 million units (49.8%) in enterprises and 7058.5 million units (50.2%) in households. 1497 tons of wool of all kinds were produced, including enterprises - 151 tons and households - 1346 tons. No less interesting are the indicators of the production of the main types of products per person, namely meat (in slaughter weight) - 58.9 kg, milk - 210.6 kg and eggs - 340 pieces.
Conclusions. In 2021, 213335 thousand heads of agricultural animals were registered in all categories of farms, where 118661.7 thousand heads were in enterprises and 94673.3 in households. By agricultural species, they were distributed as follows: 94.8% are occupied by poultry of all types, 2.6% by pigs, 1.2% by cattle, 0.7% by rabbits, 0.5% by sheep and goats, and 0.1% by horses The allocated breeding part of the population of agricultural animals occupies 3519.2 thousand heads (except for beekeeping and fish farming), which are placed in 528 breeding statuses, in which they work on improving the productive qualities of 63 breeds, types, crosses and species. The average weight of cows in all categories of farms in Ukraine is 5155 kg, and the breeding part is 8130 kg. Enterprises milked 6863 kg of milk per cow, and the population milked 4604 kg.
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