INFLUENCE OF MICRO-CLIMATE PARAMETERS IN SPRING AND SUMMER ON PRODUCTIVITY DURING BREEDING AND FATTENING OF PIGS
Goal. Investigate the influence of microclimate parameters on animal productivity in spring and summer, namely: temperature, relative humidity and air velocity in the premises for keeping large white pigs for rearing and fattening. Methods. Zootechnical, physical and biometric analyzes. Results. According to research, it was found that the greatest impact on animal productivity was shown by air temperature. Thus, during the period of rearing animals the best indicators of average daily growth were found in the I and II - experimental groups (457 ± 8.3 g; 462 ± 7.6 g), which is more by 38 and 43 g at lower air temperature in the den of piglets. 1.7 and 1.4ºC compared with the V – control group, whose productivity at air temperature in the machine 24.0 ± 0.28ºC was 419 ± 10.8 g. In relation to the control group found a significant difference in air temperature in the area lair of piglets in the 1st and 2nd groups at P < 0.001 (td = 6.07 and 3.93), III – at P < 0.01 (td = 2.98) at the entrance to the room and in the ends of the room in VII – at P < 0.001 (td = 4.64), VIII and IX groups at P < 0.05 (td = 1.97 and 2.02). The absolute increase in live weight of piglets compared to the control group (21.04 kg) was higher by 1.36; 1.24; 0.21; 0.39; 0.56 and 0.02 kg in all experimental groups, except IV and VI, where the absolute increase is lower by 1.02 and 1.25 kg. Higher by 0.95 and 0.84% in I and II and lower by 0.18; 0.72; 0.18; 1.53; 0.97 and 0.61% in the III, IV, VI, VII, VIII and IX – experimental groups were observed indicators of preservation of young animals compared with the control, where the preservation of the offspring was 95.48%.
During the period of fattening the best indicators of average daily growth were observed in groups I, II and VIII (902 ± 9.6 g, 931 ± 8.2 g and 891 ± 7.3 g), in which the air temperature in the machines was lower by 2, 5; 1.8 and 0.9ºC compared with the control, where the productivity at air temperature in the machine 29.1 ± 0.47ºC corresponded to the value of 866 ± 9.8 g. at 36; 65 and 25 g, feed consumption per 1 kg of gain was 2.79; 2.65; 2.94 hp Significant difference in air temperature in the machine for keeping animals compared with the control was found in the first at P < 0.001 (td = 4.39), the second at P < 0.01 (td = 3.27) and the third at P < 0.001 (td = 4.26) groups at the entrance to the room and at the end of the room in the VII at P < 0.01 (td = 3.19), VIII and IX groups at P < 0.05 (td = 1.91 and 2.14). The absolute increase in live weight of animals of the above experimental groups at low air temperature was 81.2 ± 1.14 kg; 83.8 ± 1.12 kg; 80.2 ± 1.18 kg, which is 3.2; 5.8 and 2.2 kg compared to the control (78.0 ± 1.38 kg).
The relative humidity for all control groups in the room for rearing piglets was close to the upper limit of normal at the level of 69.3 to 71.9% and was within the statistical error, except for the second - experimental group.
The relative humidity in the pig fattening room was also close to the upper limit of normal and was for all groups in the range of 67.2 to 70.0% and was within the statistical error, except for group II, which showed a level of reliability compared to to control at P < 0.05 (td = 1.92). The highest relative humidity of 70.0 ± 1.38% was observed indoors in the IV group, which is 1.3% more, the lowest relative humidity of 67.2 ± 1.22% was at the entrance to the room in the II group, which is 1.5% less than the control group (68.7 ± 1.14%).
The speed of air movement in the premises for rearing and fattening pigs for all experimental groups of animals was within its norm and was close to the lower limit of the norm and was, respectively, 0.19–0.29 m/s at the norm (0.20–0,60 m/s) for the spring period of the year with a significant difference in relation to the control group in the I and II groups at P < 0,01 (td = 2,75 and 3,00), III – at P < 0,001 td = 3.33) and VI, VII, IX – at P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 (td = 1.95; 2.67; 2.17) and 0.31–0.42 m/s at the norm (0.30–1.00 m/s) for the summer season with a significant difference compared to the control in I, II, III, VI and VII – experimental groups at P < 0.001 (td = 3.33; 3.54; 4.71), P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 (td = 2.35 and 2.94). Conclusions. Based on the obtained data of our experiments, it can be stated that the greatest influence on the productivity of animals for rearing and fattening indoors had the air temperature, which ranged in the spring from 22.3°C to 24.0°C for piglets for rearing and summer season from 26.6°C to 29.1°C for fattening pigs. At the same time, the highest average daily gain of animals was observed in groups with lower temperature limits and higher air velocities. The relative humidity in the pig housing did not show a significant effect on the health and productivity of animals.
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