THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE FIRST CALVING COWS OF DIFFERENT CONDITIONS GROWING AND HOUSING
Introduction. The purpose of the work was to study the influence of different conditions of rearing and housing of the first calving cows on their productivity, reproductive capacity and stayability during lactation at the current stage of breeding.
Materials and methods of research. The work was carried out based on the data of four breeding plants for the breeding of Ukrainian black and white dairy cows. The data of 3.610 first calving cows that calved during the last six years were analyzed. Statistical processing of the obtained data was carried out by the method of two-factor variance analysis using computer programs. During the analysis, the data were divided by the age of first fertilization and the average daily gain before fertilization. Only animals with a duration of lactation of more than 200 days were selected to determine productivity indicators for lactation. The stayability was determined for the first 10 months of lactation. In determining the probability of abortion and stillbirth, calvings with stillborn calves and abortions after which lactation began are taken into account.
Research results. It was established that the live weight of first calving cows, regardless of the housing, increased proportionally to the intensity of their growing. In stall housing, the live weight of first servis that were fertilized at different ages had no significant differences, while in free stall housing, the first calving cows that were inseminated before the age of 470 days had an advantage of 12–19 kg.
In terms of milk yield for 305 days of lactation, the first calving cow that were kept tethered and were fertilized at an earlier age exceeded the animals of other groups by 29–148 kg of milk, and those kept without tethering by 564–989 kg. Intensively reared animals produced 244–539 kg of milk more when tethered, and when tethered, this difference was significantly greater and amounted to 530–1081 kg, compared to first calving cow with an increase of less than 800 g. A reading has been established for the trend of increasing the milk yields from the changes in the first fertilization. The intensity of the growth of the heifers before the flooding also has a positive impact on their day milk yield.
The probability of unsuccessful calving does not depend on the age of the first insemination in stall housing, but in free housing, animals that were inseminated before 470 days of age had 36–46% more unfavorable results with calving than those that were inseminated in older age The probability of abortion and the birth of a dead calf during stall housing heifers with different intensities of growing before fertilization also had no significant differences, and during free housing heifers with an average daily gain of more than 800 g had 7–9 more cases of unsuccessful calving, calculated on 100 animal compared to heifers with a lower intensity of growing.
Conclusions. Increasing the intensity of raising heifers and reducing the age of first insemination contribute to increasing their productivity. It is necessary to carry out constant monitoring of repair youngsters for fatness and to prevent obesity. It leads to a decrease in reproductive capacity, unfavorable calving and, as a result, an increase in the probability of culling in the first lactation, especially in in free housing.
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