PRODUCTIVE TRAITS AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR OF RAMS UNDER DIFFERENT FEEDING CONDITIONS
One of the key problems in the technology of sheep fattening for the production of young lamb is obtaining the maximum increase in live weight with the lowest consumption of feed per unit of production. Therefore, the economic efficiency of the production of high-quality, biologically complete lamb first of all depends on the feeding conditions. On the other hand, unsatisfactory feeding and unjustified changes in its individual components can cause significant violations of feeding behavior and biological rhythms of animals. The aim of the research – to determine the productive characteristics and feeding behavior of Kharkiv inbred sheep of the Prekos breed under different feeding conditions. Materials and methods of research. The realization of the set goal involved the use of a complex of generally accepted zootechnical and statistical research methods.
Two groups of lambs with similar age and live weight were formed: I experimental (high level of years) and II control (according to the norms of a moderate hour), during the process of substantiating the set goal. The total number of sheep in each group was 19 heads. Research results. According to the results of individual weighing at the end of the study, an increase in live weight by 5.01 kg or 11.6% was established in rams grown at a high level of years, due to to peers of the control group. At the same time, according to the level of average daily growth, the difference between the animals of the compared groups was 49 g or 28.5% of the result of the first ones. While the live lambs of the control group increased by 25.0 kg or 2.1 times at the beginning of the preparatory period of the study, the experimental one increased by 20.0 kg or 1.9 times. In the structure of the two formed groups, rams with strong balanced, strong unbalanced and weak types were distinguished. They differed not only by the nature of foraging behavior determined by the level of feeding and productivity, but also by their reactions to changes in external irritants. The analysis of the general typological structure of the 6-month-old flock of rams selected for the experiment was represented by 16 heads (42.1%) of type I; 10 heads (26.3%) – type II and 12 heads (31.6%) – type III. The nature of the relationship between the stereotype of the behavior of rams changed with the age insignificantly. At the age of 8.5 months it reached values: 18 heads (47.3%) were classified as type I; II type – 8 heads (21.1%) and III type – 12 heads (31.6%). The distribution of I and II behavior stereotype rams within the two groups was almost the same throughout the research: 7 and 8 heads, or 36.8 and 42.1%, were assigned to the I type of behavior in the control group, respectively, and 9 and 10 heads in the experimental group or 47.3 and 52.6%, II – 4 and 3 heads or 21.1 and 15.8%, experimental – 6 and 5 heads or 31.6 and 26.3%. At the same time the specific share of individuals assigned to the III type of behavior of the control group varied and was 8 heads or 42.1%, and the experimental group – 4 heads or 21.1%. According to the results of the lifetime assessment of meat productivity, the lambs of the experimental group turned out to be better than expected. It was established that, regardless of the group, rams assigned to I and II stereotypes of behavior spent more time near the feeder and consumed feed longer, respectively, for 73 and 77 min and 43 and 35 min or 42.0 and 52.4% and 24.7 and 23.8% of the total observation time (8 hours), including concentrated ones – for 5 and 7 min and 3 and 5 min or 12.2 and 19.5% and 7.4 and 11.2%, compared to peers III stereotype of behavior. The peaks of feed intake were within the time period from 8 to 9 hours and from 13 to 14 hours of daylight hours. While the groups did not differ significantly in the duration of water intake. Rams of behavior stereotype III spent a longer time moving by 90 and 99 min or 2.0 times in both cases of comparison with individuals of behavior stereotype I, and by 50 and 47 min or 1.4 and 1.3 times than peers of II stereotype of behavior. On the other hand, rams of the I and II behavioral stereotypes were characterized by a calmer temperament, as the time they spent on such an element of behavior as rest was, on the contrary, the greatest. This was also due to their greater consumption of concentrated and juicy feed. Conclusions. The conditions of their full feeding influenced the scores of pre-slaughter live mass and the back part of the body, having a slight effect on the meat forms of the front part, the body and the general constitution. At the same time, the increased level of feeding contributed to the probable strengthening of the effect of rations on the complex lifetime assessment of meat forms at the level of 4.3 points or 5.3%.
Ubushaev, B. S. 2016. Vliyanie sostava ratsiona kormleniya na myasnuyu produktivnost' i kachestvo myasa molodnyaka ovets – Influence of the composition of the feeding ration on the meat productivity and quality of the meat of young sheep. AgroEkoInfo, 4(26):27 (in Russian).
Mongush, S. D. 2002. Vliyanie raznogo urovnya kormleniya i struktury ratsionov na produktivnost' molodnyaka myaso-sherstnykh ovets – The influence of different levels of feeding and the structure of diets on the productivity of young meat and wool sheep. (Candidate’s thesis). All-Russian State Research Institute of Animal Husbandry. Dubrovitsy, 135 (in Russian).
Rimikhanov, N. I. 2000. Produktivnost' ovets gornoy porody pri raznykh urovnyakh kormleniya – Productivity of mountain sheep at different levels of feeding. Doklady Timerjazeskaja sel'skohozjajstvennaja akademija – TSHA reports. Moskva, 256–259 (in Russian).
Shashie, A., and U. Mengistu, A. Getachew, and Y. Mohammed. 2017. Feed Intake, Digestibility, Growth Performance and Blood Profiles of Three Ethiopian Fat Tail Hair Sheep Fed Hay Supplemented with Two Levels of Concentrate Supplement. Open Journal of Animal Sciences, 7(2). doi.org/10.4236/ojas.2017.72013 (in English).
Fentie, B. and M. Solomon. 2008. Effects of Supplementation of Farta Sheep Fed Hay with Sole or Mixtures of Noug Seed Meal and Wheat Bran on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Body Weight Change. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 40:597–606. doi.org/10.1007/s11250-008-9138-1 (in English).
Likawent, Y., K. Claudia, T. Firew, and J. P. Kurt. 2012. Sweet Blue Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) Seed as a Substitute for Concentrate Mix Supplement in the Diets of Yearling Washera Rams Fed on Natural Pasture Hay as Basal Diet in Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44:1255–1261. doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-0066-0 (in English).
Birhanu, T., A. Getachew, and U. Mengistu. 2013. Effect of Green Prosopis juliflora Abissynica Cake Supplementation on Digestibility and Performance of Blackhead Ogaden Sheep Fed Hay as a Basal Diet. Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 2:38–47 (in English).
Santos-Silva, J., I. A. Mendes, and R. J. B. Bessa. 2002. The Effect of Genotype, Feeding System and Slaughter Weight on the Quality of Light Lambs. 1. Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality. Livestock Production Science, 76:17–25 (in English).
Aboneev, V. V. 2011. Myasnaya produktivnost' ovets i faktory, ee opredelyayushchie : monografiya – Meat productivity of sheep and factors that determine it. Stavropol': GNU SNIIZhK, 153 (in Russian).
Kolosov, Yu. A., and A. S. Degtyar', E. A. Ganzenko. 2016. Otkormochnye kachestva baranchikov razlichnogo proiskhozhdeniya – Fattening qualities of sheep of various origins. Aktual'nye napravleniya innovatsionnogo razvitiya zhivotnovodstva i sovremennye tekhnologii proizvodstva produktov pitaniya, materialy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii – Actual directions of innovative development of animal husbandry and modern technologies for food production, materials of the international scientific and practical conference. Persianovskiy, 34–37 (in Russian).
Lushnikov, V. P. 2017. Effektivnost' nagula i otkorma baranchikov pri proizvodstve molodoy baraniny – Efficiency of fattening and fattening of rams in the production of young mutton. Ovtsy, kozy, sherstyanoe delo – Sheep, goats, woolen business. 2:16–17 (in Russian).
Serdyukov, I. G., and V. V. Aboneev, M. B. Pavlov, A. M. Pavlov, V. V. Marchenko. 2017. Otkormochnye i myasnye kachestva baranchikov porody dzhalginskiy merinos s razlichnoy toninoy shersti – Fattening and meat qualities of rams of the Dzhalginsky merino breed with different wool tones. Zootekhniya – Zootechnics. 2:26–28 (in Russian).
Surov, A. I., and A. A. Omarov, E. A. Mal'tsev, S. L. Chirva. 2015. Otkormochnye i myasnye kachestva molodnyaka ovets raznykh genotipov – Fattening and meat qualities of young sheep of different genotypes. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Vserossiyskogo nauchno-issledovatel'skogo instituta ovtsevodstva i kozovodstva – Collection of Scientific Papers All-Russian Research Institute of Sheep and Goat Breeding. 2:8:22–26 (in Russian).
Shaydullin, I. N. 2010. Organizatsionnye i tekhnologicheskie aspekty povysheniya produktivnosti ovets – Organizational and technological aspects of sheep productivity increase. Glavnyy zootekhnik – Chief livestock specialist. 1:26–28 (in Russian).
Khachirov, S. T. 2006. Produktivnost' ovets sovetskoy myaso-sherstnoy porody v zavisimosti ot tipa pishchevogo povedeniya i pri raznom urovne kormleniya – The productivity of sheep of the soviet meat and wool breed depending on the type of feeding behavior and at different levels of feeding. (Doctor’s thesis). Karachay-Cherkess Branch of the Moscow Open Social University. Cherkessk, 236 (in Russian).
Konik, N. V. 2007. Vzaimosvyaz' tipa povedeniya s produktivnost'yu merinosovykh ovets – The relationship of the type of behavior with the productivity of merino sheep, Sovremennye dostizheniya zootekhnicheskoy nauki i praktiki – osnova povysheniya produktivnosti sel'skokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh : sbornik nauchnykh trudov Severo-Kavkazskiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut zhivotnovodstva – Modern achievements of zootechnical science and practice – the basis for increasing the productivity of farm animals: a collection of scientific papers North Caucasian Research Institute of Animal Husbandry. Krasnodar, 1:103–106 (in Russian).
Zarytovskiy, V. S., M. I. Liev, and G. I. Emel'yanov. 1990. Etologiya ovets – Ethology of sheep. Moskva : Agropromizdat, 142 (in Russian).
Koshelev, Yu. P. 2000. Pishchevoe povedenie i produktivnost' valushkov tsigayskoy porody ovets – Feeding Behavior and Productivity of Valushki of the Tsigai Sheep Breed. (Candidate’s thesis). Saratov State Agrarian University named after N. I. Vavilov. Stavropol', 24 (in Russian).
Sannikov, M. Yu. 2010. Etologicheskie i fiziologo-biologicheskie metody optimizatsii tekhnologii soderzhaniya v ovtsevodstve i molochnom kozovodstve – Ethological and physiological-biological methods for optimizing the technology of keeping in sheep breeding and dairy goat breeding. (Doctor’s thesis). State Scientific Institution of the Stavropol Research Institute of Animal Husbandry and Forage Production of the Russian Agricultural Academy. Volgograd, 329 (in Russian).
Belyaev, D. K. and V. N. Martynova. 1973. Povedenie i vosproizvoditel'naya funktsiya u domashnikh ovets – Behavior and reproductive function in domestic sheep. Problemy teoreticheskoy i prikladnoy genetiki – Problems of theoretical and applied genetics. 22:370–390 (in Russian).
Plokhinskiy, N. A. 1969. Rukovodstvo po biometrii dlya zootekhnikov – Guide to Biometrics for Livestock Technicians. Moskva : Kolos, 255 (in Russian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.