EFFICIENCY OF ECONOMIC USE OF COWS DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND HERD OF SELECTION
The aim of the research. The domestic breeding base is not always able to meet the need for high-quality breeding stock with high genetic potential to staff newly established enterprises or farms that increase production capacity. Therefore, in recent decades, imports of livestock from abroad have increased significantly. Thus, according to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, annually (2016–2021) from 1.5 to 4.5 thousand heads of breeding cattle are imported to our country from Europe (Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic). The largest share of imported breeding resources are Holstein animals. However, imported animals that are obtained and raised in other environmental conditions and genetically programmed for them do not always successfully adapt to new housing and feeding conditions. It is obvious that the adaptation processes are reflected in the level of milk productivity and indicators of lifetime use.
In this regard, further study of the productive longevity of cows and the realization of the genetic potential of imported and purchased within the country of dairy cattle is relevant and of scientific and practical interest.
Materials and methods of research. The study was conducted in a breeding farm for breeding Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle, and since 2009 – Holstein breed ALLC "Agrosvit" Myronivskyi district of Kyiv region by retrospective analysis on the materials of primary zootechnical and breeding records. The electronic information base of the Dairy Management System of Dairy Farming “ORSEC” as of March 2020 was used for the analysis. The generated matrix of observations in the sta format generally contained information about 5099 cows for 482 variables. Of these, 3298 animals had dated information on the date of calving (2002–2019) and milk yield of first heifer.
Of the 1,001 cows included in the analysis, 541 were classified as Holstein, 541 as Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cows, and 11 as other breeds and crossbreeds. By herd or country of selection 1135 cows are included in the group of local reproduction, 35 – imported in 2003 to the farm from Hungary (first calved in 2004), 105 cows imported in 2005 from Denmark (first calving 2005–2006), 33 cows imported in 2008 year from Germany (the first calving in 2008–2009), 48 cows were purchased from SE "Yamnytsia" Tysmenets district of Ivano-Frankivsk region, 20 – in SERF "Ryhalske" Yemilchyn district of Zhytomyr region, 53 – in LLC "Agrofirma Knyazhychi" Kyiv-Sviatoshynskyi district of Kyiv region, 33 – in Sarny SRS of Sarny district of Rivne region.
Research results. Comparison of group average animals of different birthplaces (countries or herds of selection) established a sometimes noticeable level of intergroup differentiation in terms of growth intensity of repair heifers, reproductive ability and milk productivity of cows for the first three and higher lactation. This may be partly due to the different conditional bloodlines of the improving Holstein breed.
In terms of live weight at the age of six months, the best development is characterized by animals of SE "Yamnytsia", which exceeded the animals of Sarny SRS by 18 ± 3.2 kg or 10.7% (td = 5.63, P < 0.001).
The higher average group yield of first heifers is accompanied by a curvilinear increase in the duration of the service period and the period between calvings and a decrease in the coefficient of reproductive ability. The analysis of milk productivity for the second, third and higher lactation showed a significant advantage of imported animals from Germany over all other animals. Among the cows of domestic origin, the priority in milk yield for the second lactation are animals purchased from the SE "Yamnytsia".
Among the animals of domestic selection, the most optimal indicators of lifetime use were characterized by cows purchased from SE "Yamnytsia", they prevailed in the number of lactations, duration of economic use, lactation, lifetime milk productivity (yield, fat, protein), milk yield and milk fat and protein per day of life, economic use and lactation not only all groups of animals born in Ukraine, but also cows of Danish and Hungarian selection.
One-way analysis of variance confirmed the low, but in most cases significant influence of the place of birth of animals on the signs of duration and efficiency of lifetime use of cows.
By age of the first calving, the difference between animals of European and domestic selection was insignificant (within the statistical error). In terms of efficiency of lifelong use, imported animals were not inferior to cows of Ukrainian selection, which showed a fairly high level of their adaptation to new economic and environmental conditions.
A significant advantage of cows of European selection by the coefficient of economic (3.8 ± 0.99%, td = 3.84, P < 0.001) and productive (2.7 ± 0.88%, td = 3.07, < 0.001) use at a lower lactation factor (1.7 ± 0.84%, td = 2.02, P < 0.05).
Conclusions. According to the intensity of growth of repair heifers, reproductive capacity and milk productivity of cows for the first three and higher lactation, sometimes a noticeable level of intergroup differentiation of animals of different birthplaces (countries or herds of selection) was established. In terms of live weight of heifers, animals of Hungarian selection, local reproduction and purchased from SE “Yamnytsia” had the advantage, the worst were peers from Sarny SRS. The youngest age of calving was characterized by the first heifers of German selection and local reproduction (ALLC "Agrosvit"). The highest milk productivity for the first lactation was distinguished by cows of Hungarian, for the second and older – of German selection, local reproduction and purchased from SE "Yamnytsia". The tendency of deterioration of reproductive ability of cows with increase of their dairy productivity is revealed.
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