Keywords: cow, live weight, reproductive ability, milk productive, efficiency of lifetime use, imported animals, domestic selection


The aim of the research. The domestic breeding base is not always able to meet the need for high-quality breeding stock with high genetic potential to staff newly established enterprises or farms that increase production capacity. Therefore, in recent decades, imports of livestock from abroad have increased significantly. Thus, according to the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, annually (2016–2021) from 1.5 to 4.5 thousand heads of breeding cattle are imported to our country from Europe (Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Austria, Hungary, the Czech Republic). The largest share of imported breeding resources are Holstein animals. However, imported animals that are obtained and raised in other environmental conditions and genetically programmed for them do not always successfully adapt to new housing and feeding conditions. It is obvious that the adaptation processes are reflected in the level of milk productivity and indicators of lifetime use.

In this regard, further study of the productive longevity of cows and the realization of the genetic potential of imported and purchased within the country of dairy cattle is relevant and of scientific and practical interest.

Materials and methods of research. The study was conducted in a breeding farm for breeding Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle, and since 2009 – Holstein breed ALLC "Agrosvit" Myronivskyi district of Kyiv region by retrospective analysis on the materials of primary zootechnical and breeding records. The electronic information base of the Dairy Management System of Dairy Farming “ORSEC” as of March 2020 was used for the analysis. The generated matrix of observations in the sta format generally contained information about 5099 cows for 482 variables. Of these, 3298 animals had dated information on the date of calving (2002–2019) and milk yield of first heifer.

Of the 1,001 cows included in the analysis, 541 were classified as Holstein, 541 as Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cows, and 11 as other breeds and crossbreeds. By herd or country of selection 1135 cows are included in the group of local reproduction, 35 – imported in 2003 to the farm from Hungary (first calved in 2004), 105 cows imported in 2005 from Denmark (first calving 2005–2006), 33 cows imported in 2008 year from Germany (the first calving in 2008–2009), 48 cows were purchased from SE "Yamnytsia" Tysmenets district of Ivano-Frankivsk region, 20 – in SERF "Ryhalske" Yemilchyn district of Zhytomyr region, 53 – in LLC "Agrofirma Knyazhychi" Kyiv-Sviatoshynskyi district of Kyiv region, 33 – in Sarny SRS of Sarny district of Rivne region.

Research results. Comparison of group average animals of different birthplaces (countries or herds of selection) established a sometimes noticeable level of intergroup differentiation in terms of growth intensity of repair heifers, reproductive ability and milk productivity of cows for the first three and higher lactation. This may be partly due to the different conditional bloodlines of the improving Holstein breed.

In terms of live weight at the age of six months, the best development is characterized by animals of SE "Yamnytsia", which exceeded the animals of Sarny SRS by 18 ± 3.2 kg or 10.7% (td = 5.63, P < 0.001).

The higher average group yield of first heifers is accompanied by a curvilinear increase in the duration of the service period and the period between calvings and a decrease in the coefficient of reproductive ability. The analysis of milk productivity for the second, third and higher lactation showed a significant advantage of imported animals from Germany over all other animals. Among the cows of domestic origin, the priority in milk yield for the second lactation are animals purchased from the SE "Yamnytsia".

Among the animals of domestic selection, the most optimal indicators of lifetime use were characterized by cows purchased from SE "Yamnytsia", they prevailed in the number of lactations, duration of economic use, lactation, lifetime milk productivity (yield, fat, protein), milk yield and milk fat and protein per day of life, economic use and lactation not only all groups of animals born in Ukraine, but also cows of Danish and Hungarian selection.

One-way analysis of variance confirmed the low, but in most cases significant influence of the place of birth of animals on the signs of duration and efficiency of lifetime use of cows.

By age of the first calving, the difference between animals of European and domestic selection was insignificant (within the statistical error). In terms of efficiency of lifelong use, imported animals were not inferior to cows of Ukrainian selection, which showed a fairly high level of their adaptation to new economic and environmental conditions.

A significant advantage of cows of European selection by the coefficient of economic (3.8 ± 0.99%, td = 3.84, P < 0.001) and productive (2.7 ± 0.88%, td = 3.07, < 0.001) use at a lower lactation factor (1.7 ± 0.84%, td = 2.02, P < 0.05).

Conclusions. According to the intensity of growth of repair heifers, reproductive capacity and milk productivity of cows for the first three and higher lactation, sometimes a noticeable level of intergroup differentiation of animals of different birthplaces (countries or herds of selection) was established. In terms of live weight of heifers, animals of Hungarian selection, local reproduction and purchased from SE “Yamnytsia” had the advantage, the worst were peers from Sarny SRS. The youngest age of calving was characterized by the first heifers of German selection and local reproduction (ALLC "Agrosvit"). The highest milk productivity for the first lactation was distinguished by cows of Hungarian, for the second and older – of German selection, local reproduction and purchased from SE "Yamnytsia". The tendency of deterioration of reproductive ability of cows with increase of their dairy productivity is revealed.


Babik, N. P., Ye. I. Fedorovych, and V. V. Fedorovych. 2017. Tryvalist ta efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv molochnykh pored zalezhno vid krainy pokhodzhennia yikh batka – Longevity and lifetime productivity of dairy cows depending on country of bull origin. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyyiv, 54:19–29 (in Ukrainian).

Borovikov, V. P. 2003. STATISTICA. Iskusstvo analiza dannykh na komp'yutere: dlya professionalov – STATISTICA. Art of analysis of data on a computer: for professionals. SPb: Piter, 688 (in Russian).

Danylenko, V. P., and I. A. Rudyk. 2012. Do pytannia efektyvnosti vykorystannia molochnykh porid u hospodarstvi – On the question of the efficiency of the use of dairy breeds on the farm. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, 46:63–66 (in Ukrainian).

Zovnishnia torhivlia okremymy vydamy tovariv za krainamy svitu – Foreign trade in certain types of goods by country. URL: http://www.ukrstat.gov.ua/operativ/operativ2021/zd/e_iovt/-arh_iovt2021.htm (in Ukrainian).

Lytovchenko, A. M., D. M. Mykytiuk, O. V. Bilous, N. V. Kudriavska, L. V. Shpak, V. P. Burkat, M. Ya. Yefimenko, Yu. P. Polupan, M. P. Demchuk, S. B. Vasylkivskyi, S. Yu. Ruban, Yu. F. Melnyk, M. M. Maiboroda, O. I. Kostenko, I. A. Rudyk, M. I. Bashchenko, I. V. Tishchenko, L. M. Khmelnychyi, A. P. Kruhliak, L. V. Vyshnevskyi, and A. F. Hordin. 2007. Instruktsiia z bonituvannia velykoi rohatoi khudoby molochnykh i molochno-miasnykh porid. Instruktsiia z vedennia pleminnoho obliku v molochnomu i molochno-miasnomu skotarstvi – Instructions for grading cattle of dairy and dairy-meat breeds. Instructions for keeping breeding records in dairy and dairy-meat cattle breeding. Kyiv, Aristei, 72 (in Ukrainian).

Lozovaya, G. S., V. I. Cys', and A. M. CHekushkin. 2014. Sohrannost' i produktivnost' importnogo golshtinskogo skota v usloviyah Belgorodskoj oblasti – Safety and productivity of imported Holstein cattle in the Belgorod region. Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo – Dairy and beef cattle breeding. 2:68–73 (in Russian).

Lyashenko, V. V., and I. V. Sitnikova. 2014. Produktivnost' golshtinskih korov-pervotelok raz-noj selekcii – Productivity of Holstein first heifers of different selection. Niva Povolzh'ya – Niva of the Volga region. 3(32):100–106 (in Russian).

Mazur, N. P. 2019. Vplyv henetychnykh i paratypovykh chynnykiv na tryvalist ta efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia molochnoi khudoby – Influence of genetic and paratypic factors on duration and efficiency of lifetime use of dairy cattle : dys. ... d-ra s.-h. nauk : 06.02.01, Chubynske Kyivskoi obl. 390 (in Ukrainian).

Mazur, N. P., Ye. I. Fedorovych, and V. V. Fedorovych. 2018. Hospodarsky korysni oznaky koriv molochnykh porid ta yikh zviazok z produktyvnym dovholittiam – Economically useful traits of dairy cows and their relationship with productive longevity. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, 56:50–64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.56.07 (in Ukrainian).

Milostivyj, R. V., and L. V. Karlova. 2017. Produktivnoe dolgoletie golshtinskih korov evropejskoj selekcii raznyh linij v usloviyah promyshlennoj tekhnologii – Productive longevity of Holstein cows of European selection of different lines in conditions of industrial technology. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, 54:65–74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.54.09 (in Ukrainian).

Oleshko, V. P. 2016. Efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia importovanykh koriv – Efficiency of lifetime use of imported cows. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, 52:49–58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.52.08 (in Ukrainian).

Oleshko, V. P. 2017. Tryvalist dovichnoho vykorystannia importovanykh koriv – Lifetime use of imported cows. Naukovi poshuky molodi u tretomu tysiacholitti : materialy naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii molodykh uchenykh, aspirantiv i doktorantiv, 18 ta 23 travnia 2017 r. – Scientific research of young people in the third millennium: materials of the scientific-practical conference of young scientists, graduate students and doctoral students, May 18 and 23, 2017. Bila Tserkva, 2:12–13 (in Ukrainian).

Pidpala, T. V., and Ye. M. Zaitsev. 2018. Produktyvne dovholittia molochnoi khudoby holshtynskoi porody riznoi selektsii – Productive longevity of Holstein dairy cattle of different selection. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomoria – Bulletin of Agrarian Science of the Black Sea Region. Mykolaiv, 3:40–45 (in Ukrainian).

Pishchan, I. S. 2016. Henotypovi ta paratypovi faktory formuvannia molochnoi produktyvnosti koriv shvitskoi porody v avstriiskii ekolohichnii zoni pokhodzhennia – Genotypic and paratypic factors of formation of milk productivity of cows of Swiss breed in the Austrian ecological zone of origin. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii im. S. Z. Gzhytskoho. Seriia : Silskohospodarski nauky – Scientific Bulletin of Lviv National University of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology. S. Z. Gzhytsky. Series: Agricultural Sciences. 2(67):187–194. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15421/nvlvet6742 (in Ukrainian).

Plohinskij, N. A. 1970. Biometriya – Biometrics. Moskva: Izdatelstvo MGU, 367 (in Russian).

Polupan, Yu. P. 2014. Efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv: do metodyky hrupu-vannia I vplyv umovnoi krovnosti – The effectiveness of productive lifespan of cows: clustering technique and impact of Holstein share heredity. Rozvedennia I henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, 48:98–113 (in Ukrainian).

Polupan, Yu. P. 2014. Efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv riznykh krain selektsii – The efficiency of lifetime production of cows from different countries of selection. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Seriia “Tvarynnytstvo” – Bulletin of Sumy national agrarian university. «Livestock» series. Sumy, 2/2(25):14–20 (in Ukrainian).

Polupan, Yu. P. 2010. Metodyka otsinky selektsiinoi efektyvnosti dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv molochnykh pored – Evaluation methods of selection efficiency of dairy cows lifetime productivity. Metodolohiia naukovykh doslidzhen z pytan selektsii, henetyky ta biotekhnolohii u tvarynnytstvi: materialy naukjvo-teoretychnoi konferentsii, prysviachenoi pamiat iakademika UAAN Valeriia Petrovycha Burkata (Chubynske, 25 liutoho 2010 roku) – Methodology of scientific research on selection, genetics and biotechnology in animal husbandry: materials of the scientific-theoretical conference dedicated to the memory of UAAS academician Valery Petrovich Burkat (Chubynske, February 25, 2010). Kyyiv : Ahrarnanauka. 93–95 (in Ukrainian).

Polupan, Yu. P., N. L. Reznikova, T. P. Koval', and N. S. Gavrilenko. 2010. Ocenka effektivnosti pozhiznennogo ispol'zovaniya korov molochnyh porod – Evaluation of the effectiveness of lifelong use of dairy cows. Innovacionnye tekhnologii v zhivotnovodstve : tezisy dokladov mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii (7–8 oktyabrya 2010) – Innovative technologies in animal husbandry: abstracts of reports of international scientific and practical conference (October 7–8, 2010). Zhodino, 1:117–120 (in Ukrainian).

Polupan, Yu. P., R. V. Stavetska, and V. A. Siriak. 2021. Vplyv henetychnykh chynnykiv na tryvalist ta efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia molochnykh koriv – Influence of genetic factors on the duration and efficiency of lifetime use of dairy cows. Rozvedennia I henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyiv, 61:90–106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.61.11 (in Ukrainian).

Halafyan, A. A. 2007. STATISTICA 6. Statisticheskij analiz dannyh. 3-e izd. uchebnik – STATISTICA 6. Statistical data analysis. 3rd ed. textbook. Moskva : OOO “Binom-Press”, 512 (in Russian).

Khmelnychyi, L. M., and D. O. Bardash. 2019. Pokaznyky dovholittia koriv ukrainskoi chervono-riaboi molochnoi porody zalezhno vid chastky spadkovosti holshtynskoi porody – Indicators of longevity of cows of the Ukrainian red-and-white dairy breed depending on the share of heredity of the Holstein breed. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Seriia: Tvarynnytstvo – Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. Series: Livestock. 4:13–19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32845/bsnau.lvst.2019.4.2 (in Ukrainian).

Khmelnychyi, L. M. 2017. Otsinka koriv ukrainskykh chorno-riaboi ta chervono-riaboi molochnykh porid u porivnianni z holshtynskoiu khudoboiu datskoi selektsii za pokaznykamy dovholittia – Evaluation of cows of Ukrainian black-and-white and red-and-white dairy breeds in comparison with Holstein cattle of Danish selection according to longevity indicators. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Seriia: Tvarynnytstvo – Bulletin of Sumy National Agrarian University. Series: Livestock. 7(33):96–106 (in Ukrainian).

Khmelnychyi, L. M., and I. O. Suprun. 2010. Osnovy biometrii : dlia laboratornykh i samostiinykh robit studentiv spetsialnosti “TVPPT” – Fundamentals of biometrics: for laboratory and independent work of students majoring in «TVPPT». Kyiv, 81 (in Ukrainian).

Sharan, P. I. 1995. Ekonomichne obgruntuvannia systemy pokaznykiv otsinky hospodarsko korysnykh oznak porid velykoi rohatoi khudoby – Economic substantiation of the system of indicators of assessment of economically useful traits of cattle breeds : avtoref. dys. … kand. ekon. nauk : 08.07.02. Kyiv, 23 (in Ukrainian).

SHendakov, A. I., T. A. Lapina, and A. N. Astahova. 2016. Irlandskie i vengerskie golshtiny v Orlovskoj oblasti: rezul'taty ocenki i perspektivy razvedeniya – Irish and Hungarian Holsteins in the Oryol region: assessment results and breeding prospects. RJOAS. 4(52):13–20. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18551/rjoas.2016-04.02 (in Russian).

Shkurko, T. P. 2007.Tryvalist vykorystannia importnykh holshtynskykh koriv riznoho ekolo-ho-henetychnoho pokhodzhennia v stepovii zoni Ukrainy – Duration of use of imported Holstein cows of different ecological and genetic origin in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Visnyk instytutu tvarynnytstva tsentralnykh raioniv UAAN – Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Livestock of the Central Districts of UAAS. Dnipropetrovsk, 1:43–47 (in Ukrainian).

Cielava, L., D. Jonkus, and L. Paura. 2016. Effect of conformation traits on longevity of dairy cows in Latvia. Agricultural sciences. 1:43–49. URL: http://www2.llu.lv/research_conf/ proceedings2016_vol_1/docs/LatviaResRuralDev_22nd_vol1-43-49.pdf (in English).

Dallago, G. M., K. M. Wade, R. I. Cue, J. T. McClure, R. Lacroix, D. Pellerin, and E. Vasseur. 2021. Keeping Dairy Cows for Longer: A Critical Literature Review on Dairy Cow Longevity in High Milk-Producing Countries. Animals. 11:1–25. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030808 (in English).

Dickerson, G. E., and G. E. Chapman. 1940. Butterfat production, reproduction, growth, and longevity in relation to age at first calving. Journal of Animal Science. 1:76–81 (in English).

Haine, D., H. Delgado, R. Cue, A. Sewalem, K. Wade, R. Lacroix, D. Lefebvre, J. Arsenault, É. Bouchard, and J. Dubuc. 2017. Contextual herd factors associated with cow culling risk in Québec dairy herds: a multilevel analysis. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 144:7–12. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2017.05.014 (in English).

Schuster, J. C., H. W. Barkema, A. D. Vries, D. F. Kelton, and K. Orsel. 2020. Academic and applied approach to evaluating longevity in dairy cows. Journal Dairy Science. 103:11008–11024. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19043 (in English).

Vredenberg, I., R. Han, M. Mourits, H. Hogeveen, and W. Steeneveld. 2021. An Empirical Analysis on the Longevity of Dairy Cows in Relation to Economic Herd Performance. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 8:1–8. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2021.646672 (in English).

Vries, A. De., and M. I. Marcondes. 2020. Overview of factors affecting productive lifespan of dairy cows. The Animal Consortium. 14(S1):155–164. DOI:10.1017/S1751731119003264 (in English).

How to Cite
Pryima, S. V., Polupan, Y. P., & Danylenko, V. P. (2021). EFFICIENCY OF ECONOMIC USE OF COWS DIFFERENT COUNTRIES AND HERD OF SELECTION. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 62, 72-86. https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.62.11
Breeding and Selection

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>