ANALYSIS PEDIGREE OF LIVESTOCK OF POLISSIAN BEEF CATTLE BREED IN SFG «VERES»
Introduction. The parameters of the statistical estimation structure of the population of the Polissian beef breed now testify to the necessity to attribute it to the objects, that requires the practical realization of the basic mechanisms preservation of gene pool.
Now in Polissian beef breed the most numerous are only three factory lines: Kaskader 530, Omar 814 and Iris 559, which is not enough for maintain the optimal level of breed-specific variability of breeding signs and organization of controlled use of bulls of improving breeds, in particular Charolais, in reproduction of livestock.
Thus, there is a necessity for a comprehensive study of individual datum to the birth of animals of the Polissian beef breed in individual herds, which was the purpose of this work.
The purpose of this work was to investigate the peculiarities of the birth of the livestock of Polissian beef breed in SFG "Veres" Kramatorsk district of Donetsk region.
Research materials and methods. The study of the genealogical structure was carried out on the basis of data of primary zootechnical accounting in the format of SMBC "Orsek-M", expeditionary examination of the herd and the results of a comprehensive individual estimating of animals. Live weight of cows was taken into account based on the results of their annual weighing for rating. The milk yield of cows was calculated from the live weight of their calves at weaning – in 180 days.
Biometric processing of data was carrying out according to the method of N. A. Plokhinsky with using the software Microsoft Excel.
Research results. According to the decree from 03.09.2021 № 171 "About the appropriation of respective to statuses to the subjects of pedigree business in stock-breeding in the I and II quarters of 2021 year "SFG "Veres" was appropriated the status of pedigree breeder for breeding Polissian beef breed. In 01.10.21 year the total population of the breed is 142 heads, including 97 cows and 2 bulls.
When analyzing the genealogical structure of the livestock it was determined, that 48.6% of cows belong to the line of Kaskader 530, 41.7 – to the line of Iris 559 and 8.3 – to the related group Yavor 636. Only 1 cow descended from the bull of the breed of Charolais, which is 1.4% from the total number of cows.
The average age of cows is 5.4 years. In general, the age of cows fluctuate from 3.2 to 7.4 years. The cows of the line of Iris 559 are the oldest, and the cows of the related group Yavor 636 together with the cow, which is descended from the bull of the breed of Charolais – are the youngest.
For improve the selection traits in the herd was used the gene pool of the breed of Charolais. Thus, in 2021 year were obtained the repair heifers, which descended from bulls of the breed of Charolais: Brend UA 8013844717, Snezhok UA 8014325575 and Greek UA 8012090666.
When analyzing the growth of repair heifers it was determined, that the average live weight of heifers at weaning – in 180 days is 221.3 kg, which exceeds the parameters of the rating scale of young animals for the class of elite-record by 21 kg. The highest average live weight at weaning had the daughters of bulls Snezhok UA 8014325575 – 238.5 kg, which is 22.1 and is 17.9 kg more, compared with the daughters of bulls Greek UA 8012090666 and Brend UA 8013844717.
For a more detailed description of the herd were analyzed the results of individual weighing of cows of III and IV calving and their offspring at the age of 210 days for determination milk yield. It was determined, that cows of III calving had an average live weight of 667.5 kg with a coefficient of variation of 7.2%. When analyzing the average live weight of cows of different lines it was determined, that the highest its indicator had cows of the line of Kaskader 530 – 678.3 kg, which is 25.0 and is 1.0 kg more, compared with cows of the line of Iris 559 and related group Yavor 636.
The average milk yield of cows of the III calving is 249.2 kg, which exceeds the parameters of the rating scale of young animals for the class of elite-record by 29 kg. The detected regularity of higher parameters of milk yield in groups of animals with lower live weight can be used as a factor in the selection of cows by indicators to the efficiency conversion of feed into milk productivity.
The average live weight of cows of IV calving is 643.3 kg with level of variability of 5.9%. When analyzing the average live weight of cows of different lines by IV calving it was determined, that the highest its indicator also had cows of the line of Kaskader 530.
The average milk yield of cows of IV calving is 265.2 kg with a coefficient of variation – 9.7%. The average milk yield was highest in the cows of the related group Yavor 636 and of the line of Kaskader 530.
Conclusions. The analyze of the genealogical structure of the herd forms the information basis for further selection work based on the adjustment of the mating campaign. The results of the analysis of live weight and milk yield cows of Polissian beef breed taking into account the birth by paternal reflect the prospects of quantitative expansion of the line of Kaskader 530, which will increase the level of genetic variability and improve parameters individual growth and development of animal.
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