PECULIARITIES OF MANIFESTATION OF ECONOMIC USEFUL TRAITS OF THE DIFFERENT HENOTIPES ANIMALS OF HOLSTEIN BREED IN UKRAINE
The purpose of the article is to study the peculiarities of the manifestation of the main economically useful traits of Holstein animals and Holstein populations of different origins in the conditions of breeding farms of Ukraine.
Materials and research methods. The research was carried out on the basis of primary breeding records on 2141 cows of 7 breeding herds belonging to the Holstein breed of Black-and-White breed, including 3 breeding herds of foreign and 4 domestic selection (Holsteinized population of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, the conditional proportion of blood was more than 93.75%), analogues for Holsteinized cows in these herds were 2481 cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, of which 817 heads. Holstein breed of foreign selection (TDV "Terezine", FG "Nina" and STOV "Progress"), as well as 2319 cows, 7 breeding herds, Holstein population of Black-and-White coat of domestic selection, analogues in these herds were 1825 cows of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed.
Results. A comparative assessment of signs of milk productivity and reproductive capacity of cows of different genotypes of Holstein and domestic black and white and redand white dairy breeds, which were kept and used in the same highly mechanized dairy complexes and farms of Ukraine have been done. On average, 10226 ± 578.3 kg of milk, 386.0 ± 33.02 kg of milk fat and 335.9 ± 23.90 kg of protein were obtained from 2141 Holstein Black-and-White cows in 305 days of lactation, which exceeded analogue cows ukrainian black and white breed for 514 kg of milk, 18.6 kg of milk fat and 17.2 kg of protein. The highest level of realization of the genetic potential of the complex of traits of milk productivity (milk yield, mass fraction of fat and protein in milk) in the conditions of highly mechanized dairy complexes was shown by cows of Holstein breed of European selection. Cows of the holsteinized population of domestic selection of Red-and-White color, isolated from the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed on the basis of increasing the conditional proportion of Holstein blood, on the basis of milk productivity exceeded their counterparts Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed by milk yield by 366 kg, milk fat by 14.0 kg and protein by 10.1 kg. The average milk yield of cows of the holsteinized population of Black-and-White domestic selection was 9085.7 ± 134.7 kg and was dominated by cows of the holsteinzed population of Red-and-White domestic selection by 88.3 kg, which is not statistically significant. Instead, there was a statistically significant increase in milk fat content in Red-and-White cows of both genotypes compared to Black-and-White cows of domestic selection by +0.23% and +0.16%, which provided an increase content fat in milk of Red-and-White cows by 17.2 and 12.4 kg. The level of reproductive capacity of cows of Holstein breed of foreign selection and holsteinized Red-and-White of domestic selection was slightly lower compared to that of animals of domestic dairy breeds.
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