REPRODUCING QUALITIES OF SOWS OF DIFFERENT FAMILIES OF LARGE WHITE AND POLTAVA MEAT BREEDS IN THE TRIBAL HERDS OF PIGS OF KHMELNYCHINA
Goal. To assess the reproductive ability of inspected sows of different families of large white and Poltava meat breeds in breeding herds of Khmelnytsky region on the main selection signs using the evaluation indices of reproductive qualities. Methods. Comparison, zootechnical and biometric analyzes. Results. The reproductive qualities of sows of different families in breeding herds of pigs of large white and Poltava meat breeds of farms of Khmelnytsky region were evaluated. Among the families of large white breed, the best indicators for assessing the reproductive capacity of inspected sows were found in the family of the Sorceress, in which the main feature – fertility by modal class of distribution was 10.8 heads piglets per 1 farrowing, which is 2.8% more than the Taiga family of the same class. According to the modal class M+, the fertility of the Sorceress family (12.0 piglets per farrowing) was 0.3 heads higher than that of the females of this class of the Taiga family (11.7 heads per farrowing). The modal class М¯ of the firstborn family of the Sorceress was the best with a fertility of 9.7 heads, which is 3.2% higher than the Taiga family. Indicators of the number of piglets at weaning at the age of 30 days, the weight of the nest at weaning, the live weight of 1 head of piglets and preservation of offspring (9.5 heads; 94.1 kg; 9.9 kg; 87.9%), by class (М°), the Sorceress family was 3.2 heads bigger; 7.4 kg; 2.0 kg and 0.5% compared to the Taiga family. As a result of ranking sows by evaluation indices of reproductive qualities, I (evaluation index by a limited number of traits) and P (complex evaluation index) had an advantage by the most prolific sows of the Sorceress family of class M+, in which these indices were 43.0 and 96.1 points. In the process of research of reproductive ability of sows of Poltava meat breed of different families it was established that on the basis of fertility the Rosinka family is the best, whose fertility by distribution by class (М°) was 10.7 heads. piglets per 1 farrowing. It exceeds the average value for 5 families: 0.4 heads of Dorza and Vorskla families, 0.6 goals. Bystro's family and 1 goal. the Palm family. According to the modal class M+, the Rosinka family (11.8 piglets per 1 farrowing) has 0.3 heads more fertility than the Dorza and Vorskla families, 0.6 goals higher. and 0.1 heads than the Bistra and Palma families. The lowest fertility of sows in the class (М°) was recorded in the Dorza family (8.9 heads of piglets per farrowing). It should be noted that the Dorza family and the smallest Palma family in the M+ class have the best nest weight at weaning at the age of 45 days (138.7 and 144.2 kg), which is 18.6 more than in the М° class. and 20.7 kg. According to the indicators of the number of piglets at weaning and live weight of 1 head, the Palma's family of class M+ (10.6 heads and 13.6 kg) is distinguished. The best preservation of the offspring in the Palma's family of class M¯ = 94.7%. As a result of ranking sows of different families of Poltava meat breed according to the estimated indices of reproductive qualities, it was noted that the highest number of points in the modal class (М°) was obtained by the family Rosinka I = 40.8 and P = 94.8, which is more than the average for all families by 2.1 and 3.6 points. According to the evaluation indices (I) and (P), the best were sows of the Rosinka family of class M+, in which these indices corresponded to the values of 42.7 and 99.4 points.
Conclusions. Among different families, the best results of assessing the reproductive capacity of sows on the main selection traits and evaluation indices were found in the families of the Sorceress of the Great White breed and the family of Rosinka of the Poltava meat breed, which should continue to be used for breeding in breeding herds of pigs. An important factor in increasing the productivity of sows, of course, should be the correct selection of the level of reproductive breeding traits and a significant increase in feeding and housing conditions.
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