ELEMENT OF SELECTION – STATE BOOKS OF BREEDING ANIMALS IN UKRAINE FOR THE PERIOD 2002–2010 YEARS
The issue of registration of breeding animals of different breeds is dealt with by organizations that keep state books of breeding animals. In Ukraine, the functions of keeping state books of breeding animals in cattle breeding, pig breeding, sheep breeding and horse breeding belong to the powers of the minister, which ensures the formation of state policy in the field of animal husbandry. The issue of animal breeding books is relevant because it is an ongoing process that requires a set of measures aimed at registration, maintenance and promotion of domestic breeding livestock.
The purpose of research. To monitor the state books of breeding animals (SBBA) in dairy and meat cattle breeding, sheep breeding and pig breeding for the period 2002–2010. Also, establish the number of potential females that could be entered in the stud books.
Materials and methods of research. The material for the study was data on the presence of breeding cows of dairy and meat production, sows and ewes of breeds registered in the State Register of Breeding Subjects in Animal Husbandry (until 2009, the State Breeding Register, SBR) during 2002–2019.
The results of research. According to the SBR, 15 dairy breeds of cattle have been registered in Ukraine. During the study period, 15 volumes of SBBA of four breeds of dairy cattle were published in Ukraine, which included information on 12331 breeding animals, including 11477 cows. The largest number of recorded breeding animals of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle, of which 144 breeding bulls and 4989 cows, are concentrated in six volumes. In second place is the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cattle, namely 4554 animals. Then there is the Simmental with 871 animals, of which 809 cows, and the red steppe 1773 heads, including 1609 cows.
It is established that 48.7% of breeding animals were born in the period from 1990 to 1999. A small proportion, namely 0.3%, are animals born before 1979, and only 24% after 2000. Younger animals are recorded in the breeding books of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle and Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cattle, and older – in the books of the red steppe.
Of the 14 meat breeds used in Ukraine, only 5 have breeding animals that are registered with the SBBA. The total number of meat-producing animals recorded in the SBBA is 5586, including 4649 cows.
Of the twelve breeds of pigs bred in Ukraine, only seven breeds, namely the Ukrainian white steppe (1451 heads) and Ukrainian spotted steppe (974), Myrhorod breed (123), Great Black (181), Landrace (727), Poltava meat breed (290) and Ukrainian meat breed (300) during the study period were published state pedigree books. Half (50.7%) of all recorded breeding pigs have a year of birth before 2000. Young (born in 2000) animals are recorded in the breeding books of the Landrace breed and the Ukrainian white steppe, Ukrainian meat breed and Poltava meat breed, where their share varies from 64 to 98%.
During the study period, 9 volumes of state books of breeding sheep were published. In addition to Tsigai (884 goals), Askanian Karakul (700), fine-wool (1168), meat-wool with crossbred wool (1917) and Sokol (443), in 2003, 2004 and 2009 3 volumes of SBBA sheep of the Prekos breed were published.
The calculation of potential females that could be recorded in the state breeding books revealed the presence of 1251102 breeding animals, including 100796 ewes, 70678 sows, 71341 beef cows and 1008287 dairy cows.
The largest number of potential females of different breeds in cattle breeding, sheep breeding and pig breeding in the regions of Ukraine showed a certain pattern, namely the centers for dairy cattle breeding – Vinnytsia (83395 heads), Kyiv (111650), Khmelnytsky (64667), Cherkasy (68035) regions, beef cattle breeding – Volyn (13.466 head), Chernihiv (10.907 head), sheep breeding – Kherson (13.837), Odessa (19078) and pig breeding – Dnipropetrovsk (6452), Poltava (4621).
The main goal for calculating potential females was to try to determine the size of the breed in dairy and beef cattle, sheep breeding and pigs breeding. Because the more animals included in the breeding model, the better the results of genetic improvement. In addition, it is possible to address the dynamics of the development of breeding traits, identify successful methods of selection and selection, assessment of population and genetic parameters over time and the creation of breeding programs with breeds of farm animals.
Conclusion. State books of breeding animals are an important element of selection. Animal information databases help to estimate the populations of domestic and transboundary breeds in general by a set of characteristics, to determine the population-genetic parameters over time and to develop programs for the improvement of farm animals. Studies have identified a significant number (1251102 heads) of breeding cows, ewes and sows, which at one time could be recorded in the breeding books of the respective breeds.
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