THE EFFICIENCY OF INDEX SELECTION OF SIMMENTAL LIVESTOCK HERDS IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK PRODUCTION
The article highlights the results of studies of the effectiveness of index selection in herds of Simmental cattle in organic and conventional milk production using the selection index of R. Teinber, indicating the feasibility of its use, because the indicators of dairy productivity of animals of different groups are significantly different.
The improvement of the quantitative indicators of milk productivity of cows in the herd of the Simmental breed, both in conventional and organic dairy production, largely depends on the value of the selection index. The strength of the influence of the selection index in the herd of Miroslavel-Agro on milk yield for 305 days of lactation of cows was 67%, milk fat – 88, milk protein – 77, total production of fat and protein – 86%, in the herd of "Galeks-Agro", respectively: 71, 87, 74 and 84% (P < 0.001).
The first-calf cows of the Simmental breed under the conditions of organic milk production were somewhat dominated by animals of the conventional herd in terms of milk productivity - in terms of milk yield per 305 days of lactation per 114 kg, with an insignificant difference. First-calf cows under conditions of organic milk production had worse reproduction parameters (service period – 136 days, reproductive rate – 0.89), compared to conventional milk production (127 days and 0.91), which is associated with the prohibition of the use of artificial vitamins, hormonal veterinary drugs to stimulate hunting, and shorten the duration of biological periods.
The lowest milk productivity among the experimental groups were characterized by animals of the fifth group of both herds – their yield for 305 days of the first lactation amounted to 5042 and 4912 kg of milk, fat milk 4.08 and 4.11%, protein milk 3.37 and 3.46%. With a decrease in the selection index in animals has been established a decrease in dairy yield from 6767 (first group) to 5452 kg (fifth group), milk fat – from 290.7 to 204.8, milk protein – from 244.4 to 177.8 kg in the herd "Myroslavel-Agro" and from 7170 (first group) to 4912 kg (fifth group), milk fat – from 303.5 to 201.3, milk protein – from 252.8 to 169.5 kg in stage of "Halex-Agro".
We recommend to use for repair of a herd of cows whose referred to the first two groups with the value of the selection index not lower than +23.0 (for "Myroslavel-Agro") and +26.3 (for "Galex-Agro"). The worst in terms of milk productivity, with the lowest value of the selection index (respectively: -44.9 and -51.7), it is desirable to sell to subsidiaries or other farms.
It was found that when selecting animals according to the Tainber`s index, animals in organic and conventional herds are characterized by a lack of harmonious interaction with their habitat - cows are characterized by high dairy yields with simultaneous deterioration of their reproductive capacity, which confirms the well-known inverse relationship between these traits.
The first-calf cows of the Simmental breed in the conditions of organic milk production slightly outnumber the animals of the conventional herd in terms of dairy productivity - in terms of milk yield for 305 days of lactation by 114 kg (P > 0.05). The first-calf cows in the conditions of organic milk production had worse reproduction parameters (service period – 136 days, reproductive rate – 0.89), compared to conventional milk production (127 days and 0.91). In our opinion, this is due to the peculiarities of the dairy industry in organic milk production and the ban on the use of artificial vitamins, hormonal veterinary drugs to stimulate hunting and reduce the duration of biological periods of reproduction.
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