ACTIVE PART OF POPULATIONS OF TRANSBOUNDARY AND DOMESTIC BREEDS OF DAIRY AND COMBINED CATTLE BREEDING OF UKRAINE
Today in Ukraine, according to the State Register of Breeding Subjects, 13 dairy cattle breeds have been registered in animal husbandry. Conventionally, they can be divided into transboundary ones, such as Ayrshire, Angler, Holstein, Simmental, Brown Swiss and Red Polish, and domestic – Ukrainian Whiteheaded, Lebedyn, Red Steppe, Ukrainian Brown Dairy, Red, Black-and-White and Red-and-White Dairy cattle.
The breeding part of the dairy cattle population is 299908 breeding animals, including 129557 cows, which are concentrated in 321 breeding subjects. The share of domestic breeds is at the level of 67.9%. A tendency towards an increase in the number of animals in the population of transboundary breeds by 56724 animals was noted, with a simultaneous reduction in domestic breeds by 221980 animals. The main part of the transboundary breeds is Holstein (83%) and Simmental (11%), and in the domestic breed population, it is Ukrainian Black-and-White (71.5%) and Red-and-White (19.8%) dairy cattle. Local domestic breeds (Lebedyn, Red Steppe, Ukrainian Brown Dairy) occupy 2.8%.
The level of milk yield of the studied cows of the breeding part of the population of domestic and transboundary breeds is quite high and is in the range of 7242 ... 4309 kg. During the study period, there is a gradual increase from 2002 to 2019 for the milking, fat content and the amount of milk fat in cows of a population of transboundary and domestic breeds, which is respectively 3382.1 kg 0.16%; 140.7 kg and 3052 kg 0.06%; 118.1 kg. In 2019, the highest milk yield in the population of transboundary breeds was noted among Holstein cows (8679 kg) and Brown Swiss (8789) breeds, and in domestic – Ukrainian Black-and-White (7514 kg) and Red-and-White (7005 kg) dairy breads. The fat content in milk is more than 4% in cows of local breeds of Ukraine.
An analysis of the level of milk yield of cows for the studied periods showed a decrease in the number of farms with a yield of 5 thousand kg or less. So, in 2002, the share of farms breeding transboundary breeds was 70%, then in 2019 only 13%, and in domestic from 83% to 16%. The average milk yield of cows of more than 10000 kg was recorded in 17 breeding farms.
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