PRODUCTIVE QUALITIES OF COWS OF DIFFERENT BREEDING GROUPS OF THE BUKOVINSKY FACTORY OF THE UKRAINIAN RED-AND-WHITE DAIRY BREED
The studies were conducted on the materials of the breeding record of the breeding plant of JSC "Mirne" of Chernivtsi region - the basic farm of the Bukovyna factory type of the Ukrainian red-speckled dairy breed. 360 cows were selected for analysis, based on live weight, yields, fat and protein content of milk, total milk fat and protein content.
The intensification of dairy cattle breeding necessitates the systematic evaluation of animals in herds and populations on the basis of economically useful traits.
Analysis of the productive qualities of the cows of the different breeding groups showed that, by live weight, milk yield, milk fat and protein content, the two-breed (II breeding group) animals were better than the three-breed (I breeding group). The difference for the first lactation was 11.2; 32.9; 1.5; 1.0 kg respectively. In cows with the second lactation, the pattern remained, the difference was 22.2; 395.8; 15.8; 13.1 kg respectively, and for the third lactation – 31.4; 124.3; 4.8; 4.2 kg. The fat and protein content of milk varied between 3.88–3.89% and 3.33–3.34%, respectively. It should be noted that in cows of both groups there was a decrease in milk milk yield with increasing number of lactations.An evaluation of the productive qualities of the first-born cows of the different lines showed that Marshall's first-borns were better in live weight, milk yield, milk fat and protein, although they were inferior to other lines in terms of fat and protein content. In the firstborn of the Hanover Red line, the estimated values were lower than in animals of other lines, in particular – by live weight by 11.4 kg, milk yield by 1115.2 kg, milk fat by 44.1 kg, milk protein by 37.2 kg (Chif line), by 5.4; 1336.5; 52.7; 45.2 kg (Starbuck line) and 14.7; 1465; 55.1; 48.3 kg (Marshall Line).The effectiveness of breeding for increasing dairy productivity of cows depends on the efficiency of selection and selection of animals, taking into account the phenotypic and genetic correlation between economically beneficial traits. It was found that the highest positive values of correlation coefficients were observed in the cows of the studied groups between milk yield and protein content in the context of all lactations – 1st breeding group (r = 0,12–0,25), 2 nd breeding group (r = 0.19–0.3). In the cows of the first breeding group for the first and second lactations revealed not high but positive correlation of milk yield with live weight (r = 0.33–0.49). In the cows of the second breeding group for the first and second lactation positive correlation with milk fat content was found.The first positive cows of different lines showed the highest positive values of the correlation coefficients between milking and protein content (r = 0.19–0.43). There was also a low positive correlation of milk yield with live weight in the firstborn of all evaluated lines (r = 0.03–0.09), as well as milk fat content in cows of Starbuck and Marshall lines.Conclusions. 1. By live weight, milk yield, milk fat and protein content, two-bovine cows of the Bukovyna factory type of Ukrainian red-speckled dairy breed were better than three-born. The fat and protein content of milk varied between 3.88–3.89% and 3.33–3.34%, respectively. In cows of both groups there was a decrease in milk yield with increasing number of lactations.2. By live weight, milk yield, milk fat and protein content, Marshall Line firsts were better, although they were inferior to other lines in terms of fat and protein content. In the firstborn of the Hanover Red line, the estimates were lower than in other line animals.3. The highest positive values of correlation coefficients were observed between milk yield and protein content in the context of all lactations in the cows of Bukovyna factory type of Ukrainian red-rippled dairy breed. In two breeds of cows for the first and second lactation revealed not high but positive correlation of milk yield with live weight, and in three breeds for the first and second lactation positive correlation of milk yield with fat content.
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