ECONOMICALLY USEFUL SIGNS OF DAIRY BREEDS CATTLE IN HERDS OF KIROVOGRAD REGION
There are still many problems in dairy cattle breeding, such as obtaining high milk yields from existing breeds of cows, providing the proper conditions for cattle, in which their genetic potential might to be manifested, growing the heifers with clear weight in accordance with the breed standard, and etc. At the same time, the potential of any breed is increased mainly by the use of bull-breeders, and the phenotypic specificity of the half-sister groups of the parent changes in the chronology of different years, herds and climatic conditions. Its necessitates to continuе genetic monitoring of breeding groups and years of economic using.
Purpose of research. The study of the state of dairy cattle industry in the breeding farms of the Kirovohrad region, the level of formation of economically useful traits of different breeds in the technological and climatic conditions in the certain regions what in the future will provide an opportunity to correct the breading direction in the controlled herds.
Materials and methods of research. The researchs were conducted in breeding herds of cattle of the milk productive direction in the Kirovograd region, based on the boning summary reports for the period 2015–2018. The monitoring was conducted on four breeds, namely: Ukrainia Red, Red-White, Black-and-White Dairy breed, and Holstein. For analysis were included the data of 3371 animals in the breeding herds. The analysis was carried out on the average of milk productivity, reproductive capacity, clear weight, assessment the type of body structure of animals and other economically useful traits in herds of certain breeds and by four studied breeds generally, which were bred in the breeding farms of the Kirovograd region. By one-way analysis of variance determined the level of influence of the genetic factor by parental origin on indicator of the exterior of first-born cows.
Research results. It is established that in agricultural enterprises of Kirovohrad region, as of 01.01.2019, there are 25.8 thousand heads of cattle, including 10.4 thousand cows. The breeding stock is 7.51 and 3.37 thousand heads, or 29.1 and 32.4%, respectively, from the total livestock and is available in 5 breeding plants and 4 breeder.
The analysis of cows in breeding farms by milk yields showed that animals of Holstein and Ukrainian red dairy breeds prevail. In 2015, the average yield on the study groups was 6848 kg, cows Holstein and Ukrainia red exceeded the specified indicator by 1406 kg and 834 kg, in 2018 the advantage over the level of milk yield was 839 kg and 585 kg, respectively. The lowest milk yield was characterized by cows of the Ukrainia Red- and-White Dairy breed. However, it shoud be noted, of milk yield that the for all kind of breeds increased significantly and 01.01.2019 was 7805 kg against 6848 kg, which is more than 957 kg (or 13.9%) of the same period in 2015.
The live weight of cows (III – lactation) averaged 651 kg by the breeds and years of study and ranged from 603 kg (Ukrainia black-and-white dairy breed) to 726 kg (Ukrainia red-and-white dairy breed). Cows of the breeding kernel were not different significantly from the animals of the main herd by clear weight.
Assessment of the reproductive capacity of cows showed that the age of first insemination in the breeding herds of the region is from 375 to 487 days, which corresponds to 12.1–16.0 months, with a clear weight of 375–444 kg. The first calving age is 21.1–25.0 months. However, the coefficient of reproductive capacity of cows does not exceed 0.90 for the first, and 0.82 for the third lactation, which is below than its own optimal level significantly (1.00).
According to the method of linear classification, the overall assessment of the body structure of the investigated Ukrainian Red and Black-and-White Dairy breeds of the research farm ISAS NAAN was 83.2 and 82.9 points respectively, which corresponds to «good with the plus». The firstborn of the Ukrainia Red-White, Dairy breed in the PAE Shevchenko of the Vilshansky district received an overall score of 81.5 points; the peers of the Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed in the «OLTO» Company» of Oleksandrivsky district had 82.6 points, which also corresponds to «good with the plus».
At 12 months of age, the average live weight of repair heifers was 324 kg, with the smallest indices in heifers of the Ukrainia black-and-white dairy breed – 316 kg, and the largest – 333 kg in analogues of the Ukrainian red dairy breed. Assessment of repair heifers at 18 months of age testified to the efficiency for selection, because the number of females which were above the breed standard by the clear weight on average in breeding farms was 67.8%, with a small interspecific difference.
Conclusions. As a result of research on the majority of selected traits, we have established a significant level of phenotypic variability, which attests to sufficient genetic resources and prerequisites for selection in breeding herds of cattle dairy productivity in the Kirovograd region.
- The analysis of cows in breeding farms by milk yields showed the preference for animals of Holstein and Ukrainian red dairy breeds. In 2015, the average yield on the study groups was 6848kg, cows Holstein and Ukrainian red dairy breeds exceeded the certain indicator in 20.5 and 12.2%, in 2018, with the average milk yield for all breeds of 7805 kg, their preference was 10.7 and 7,5% respectively. Also, it is should be noted, that in the dynamics for the years (2015–2018), the of milk yield for all studied breeds significantly (in 957 kg, or 13.9%) increased.
- The application of the linear classification method allowed to objectively determine the features and variability of the exterior features of cows. The revealed nature of inheritance testifies to the possibility of breeding in the specified direction and the effective use of externally estimated bulls.
- Assessment of the reproductive capacity of cows showed that the age of first insemination in the breeding herds of the region ranges from 375 to 487 days, which corresponds to 12.1–16.0months. The first calving age is 21.1–25.0 months. However, the coefficient of reproductive capacity of cows does not exceed 0.90 for the first and 0.82 for the third lactation, which is significantly below its optimal level (1.00).
- In the future, it is necessary to pay attention to the system of organizational and technological measures in the breeding farms of the Kirovohrad region to improve the reproduction of the herd, reduce the duration of the service period to the optimum level and obtain 90–95 calves per 100 cows.
Didkivs'kyy, V. O. 2007. Selektsiyno-henetychni aspekty stvorennya vysokoproduktyvnoho molochnoho stada : avtoref. dys. ... kand. s.-h. nauk 06.02.01 « Rozvedennya ta selektsiya tvaryn» – Selection and genetic aspects of creation of high-yield dairy herd : abstract of the dissertation for obtaining the scientific degree of the candidate of agricultural sciences : specialty 06.02.01 "Breeding and selection of animals". Chubynske, 20 (in Ukrainian).
Kal'chuk, L. A., and M. S. Pelekhatyy. 2001. Zv"yazok molochnoyi produktyvnosti z pokaznykamy vidtvornoyi zdatnosti ta hospodars'koho vykorystannya u koriv chorno-ryaboyi porody – The connection of milk productivity with indicators of reproductive capacity and economic use in black-andwhite breed cows. Naukovo-tekhnichnyy byuleten' Instytutu tvarynnytstva UAAN – Bulletin of the Institute of Animal Science of UAAS. Kharkiv, 80:64–67 (in Ukrainian).
Polupan, Yu. P., and M. S. Havrylenko. 2008. Metodyka otsinky selektsiyno-henetychnoyi sytuatsiyi u pleminnykh stadakh – Method of evaluation of breeding genetic situation in breeding herds. Ahrarna nauka – vyrobnytstvu – Agrarian science – production. 4(46):19 (in Ukrainian).
Burkat, V. P., Y. F. Mel'nyk, M. Ya. Yefimenko, Yu. P. Polupan, and A. P. Kruhlyak. 2003. Programy selekciyi porid – Applications breeding secies. Rozvedennya i henetyka tvaryn – Animal breeding and genetics. Kyyiv : Ahrarna nauka, 37:3–22 (in Ukrainian).
Danylenko, V. P., I. A. Rudyk, V. P. Oleshko, and O. I. Babenko. 2010. Formuvannya vysokoproduktyvnoho stada molochnoyi khudoby – Formation of highly productive dairy cattle herds. Tekhnolohiya vyrobnytstva i pererobky produktsiyi tvarynnytstva : zb. nauk. prats' – Technology of production and processing of animal products: collection of scientific works. Bila Tserkva, 3(72):73–76 (in Ukrainian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.