BREEDING HERITAGE OF DAIRY-MEAT CATTLE OF UKRAINE – BROWN CARPATIAN CATTLE

  • A. Ye. Pochukalin Іnstitute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M. V.Zubets NAAS (Chubynske, Ukraine)
  • S. V. Pryima Іnstitute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M. V.Zubets NAAS (Chubynske, Ukraine)
  • O. V. Rizun Іnstitute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M. V.Zubets NAAS (Chubynske, Ukraine)
Keywords: brown carpatian, breed, type, lines, families, productivity

Abstract

The prolonged breeding process of transformation of primitive but adapted forms of brown color to the conditions of Transcarpathia region, by crossing to 1972 (breeding approbation) and improvement to 2014 (deprivation of the last breeding status of breeding status of Brown Carpathian cattle), in Ukraine, unfortunately lost its resources (breeding) for the existence of the Brown Carpathian cattle.

The purpose of the study was to analyze the Brown Carpathian cattle by major economic useful features, livestock dynamics and genealogical structure.

Materials and methods of research. The main research methods were retrospective and source-based analyzes, based on breeding books, registers and reports of breeding farms engaged in breeding Brown Carpathian cattle.

The Brown Carpathian breed derives from ancient brown cattle, which settled all the medium Europe in ancient times. In Alpes region already in medieval times it gave rise to different types of high-productive Brown Alpine cattle, which was called on the place of its distribution. In Austria – Hornoin, France – Montafon, Switzerland – Swiss. Brown cattle of Transcarpathian region was called Rizhka. These cattle were small and low-productive, but it was unimproved almost till the beginning of 20-th century. Though at plains it was crossed with Grey Ukrainian cattle and get name “Mokan” (my horse in local language), as crosses were strong and enduring, characteristics, which inherent to Grey Ukrainian cattle. Their live weight was 200–300 kg, and wither height – not more, than 113 cm, milk production – not more, than 1200 kg.

Transcarpathia is the beginning of transformation of brown cattle into the Brown Carpathian breed of the combined direction of productivity, because it was from this period that the import of improved livestock began.

In 1972, by order of the Ministry of Agriculture, the Brown Carpathian cattle of cattle was approved and recognized as a domestic factory breed of dairy and meat direction of productivity.

It should also be noted that the feature of the breeding process, according to which the newly formed breed absorbs local breeds, but in the future itself is absorbed by the neoplasm, or more productive population. Thus, the Brown Carpathian breed at the beginning of its formation by the method of absorption crossing reduced the number of local Gray Hungarian and Pinzgau breeds.

In addition to the Transcarpathian, Ivano-Frankivsk, Chernivtsi and Lviv regions of Ukraine, which were the basis for breeding of the Brown Carpathian breed, there were also exports of breeding stock beyond their borders. Thus, during 1964 ... 1974, 24.3 thousand heads were exported to other countries: Central Asia and the Caucasus, as well as Slovakia, Romania and Hungary. In addition, the Brown Carpathian breed participated in the creation of the Brown Caucasian breed as an improvement.

According to O. M. Zabrovarny's description with co-authors, the compact body type of the Brown Carpathian cattle is adapted to the mountain and lowland zones of distribution of this breed. The authors note differences in the sexes of the body with some of their disadvantages. The horns have a light color with dark tips. Color of typical animals of the Brown Carpathian breed from light to dark brown. On the spine, around the nasal mirror a light color, also a light lower body, but without white spots. Dark are the nasal mirror, hoof horn, tail brush. Newborn calves have a greyish-gray to almost white, which darkens from 2 to 3 months of age.

According to the meat productivity, animals of the Brown Carpathian breed have satisfactory values. Thus, the average daily gains of bulls are 750–900 g. The genetic potential of dairy productivity of cows of the Brown Carpathian breed is high and is at the level of 8 … 9 tons of milk.

A characteristic feature of the Brown Carpathian cattle is the adaptation of the organism to the paratypical conditions of the mountain and lowland Transcarpathia, taking into account retention and feeding. The breed has two types: lowland (Berehiv, Vynohradiv, Mukachevo districts) and mountain (Rakhiv, Volovetsky, Mezhgirsky districts).

In order to preserve the Brown Carpathian cattle as a national property, it is necessary to carry out expeditionary examination of domestic animals, to analyze and evaluate livestock. In our opinion, this can serve as a starting point for the establishment of a reserve or individual gene pool subject of the Brown Carpathian breed.

Conclusions. The Brown Carpathian cattle belongs to the combined, dairy-meat direction of productivity. The cow's productivity is at the level of 3.5–4.5 thousand kg of milk with a fat content of 3.6–3.8%, the animals have satisfactory meat productivity. The peculiarity of the breed is its exceptional adaptation to the natural and climatic conditions of Transcarpathian Ukraine. The breed has a sufficient number of regional lines and families for distribution in Ukraine.

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Published
2019-11-29
How to Cite
Pochukalin, A. Y., Pryima, S. V., & Rizun, O. V. (2019). BREEDING HERITAGE OF DAIRY-MEAT CATTLE OF UKRAINE – BROWN CARPATIAN CATTLE. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 58, 137-159. https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.58.18
Section
Conservation of Animal Biodiversity