GENETIC RESOURCES OF AGRICULTURAL ANIMALS OF UKRAINE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM
Modern animal husbandry in Ukraine is an integral part of the market economy and is based on the use of advanced production technologies and not a large number of highly productive domestic or foreign breeds of farm animals. It has been established that the progress of the livestock industry is not possible without determining the changes that occur with breeds and livestock of breeding animals in the subjects of breeding business. It is well known that only breeding animals are able to display high genetic potential for productivity and to pass it on to offspring. Understanding of the state of the breeds is necessary to forecast product volumes that are consistent with country safety, and to determine the populations that need to be preserved or restored in the context of the global problem of wildlife biodiversity conservation.
The purpose of the work was to identify the species and breeds of farm animals that have formed the livestock sector of Ukraine at the beginning of the third millennium, and to identify changes that have occurred with the genetic resources of farm animals and to identify the breeds most vulnerable to the number of females under control.
Analysis of the state of dairy and combined dairy and meat breeds in the breeding herds of Ukraine made it possible to conclude that as of January 1, 2019, compared to the beginning of 2002, the number of cows in Ayrshire, Angler, Lebedyn, Simmental, Ukrainian Red-and-White Dairy, Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy, Polish Red and Red Steppe decreased breeds. The increase in the number of cows occurs among the Ukrainian Whiteheaded, Holstein and Swiss breeds. Breeding herds for breeding cattle of Carpathian Brown, Ukrainian Brown Dairy breeds and Pintsgow are not functioning. The endangered include Angler, Ukrainian Whiteheaded, Ukrainian Brown Dairy and Polish Red breeds.
A comparative analysis of the number of cows of beef breeds in the subjects of breeding business of Ukraine in the dynamics of 2002–2019 indicates the preservation of all breeds, except for pentiges. In 2019, compared to 2002, cows increased in herds of Aberdeen-Angus breed, Hereford, Limousine, Southern Beef, Polissian Beef, Light Aquitan, Ukrainian Gray and Charolais. A significant decrease in the number of cows in Volinian Beef breed, the Znamensk type of Polissian Beef, Simmental Beef and Ukarainian Beef. The few in Ukraine at this stage include Hereford, Light Aquitan and Ukrainian Beef.
The state of pig breeding in the breeding farms on 01.01.2019 indicates the disappearance of breeding herds in which pigs of English selection Large White breed, Large Black and Myrgorod breeds were breed. At present, only Large White breeds and Landrace pigs can be competitive in numbers, and the rest should be considered non-numerical.
Sheep breeding, which is represented in Ukraine by the largest number of breeds and breed types, did not have any breeding herds in 2019, where in previous years bred Askanian Fine-Fleece breed, Askanian type of Black-Headed sheep with crossbred fleece, Olibs, North-Caucasian, Polwars, caucasian the Kharkiv type of the Ukrainian Meat-Fleece breed, the Tsigai breed and its two types, as well as the multi-breed type of the Karakul breed. Simultaneously with the disappearance of the above breeds new breeds or types appeared, among them: Bukovyna type of Askanian Meat-Fleece breed with crossbred fleece, Merinolandshaft, Dniprovian Meat (Dnipropetrovsk type), Romanivska. The smallest number of breeding queens of falcon and dark-headed Latvian breeds was established.
The changes that took place in the field of horse breeding of Ukraine during 2002–2019 relate to the creation and elimination of breeding herds in which horses were bred by Budyonnivska, Russian Heavy Draft and French Trotter breeds. No information is available in the State Register of Breeding Herds about the Gutsul and Torian breeds, as well as the Shetland Pony, may be regarded as the disappearance of these breeding herds. In 2019, compared to 2002, the number of mares of Newolexandrian Heavy Draft, Orlov Trotter, Russian Trotter, Trakenian, Ukrainian Saddle and Thoroughbred Saddle horse breeds declined significantly. The gene pool of horses has expanded only due to the Hanover breed.
Analysis of the status of other species and breeds of farm animals is not optimistic and indicates a decrease in the number of females and, consequently, a decrease in the gene pool of these breeds.
Without the introduction of effective state conservation and support programs, as well as policy changes in the agricultural sector, Ukraine will continue to reduce livestock of agricultural animals, especially domestic autochthonous or local breeds, continuing the sad tradition of the world in reducing breed biodiversity.
Voitenko, S. L., O. O. Vasylieva. 2018. Suchasnyi henofond kurei Ukrainy – The current gene pool of chickens in Ukraine. Visnyk Poltavskoi derzhavnoi ahrarnoi akademii – Bulletin of the Poltava State Agrarian Academy. 3:115–121 (in Ukrainian).
Derzhavnyi pleminnyi reiestr za 2002 rik – State Tribal Register for 2002. 2004. Kyyiv, 324 (in Ukrainian).
Derzhavnyi pleminnyi reiestr za 2010 rik – State Tribal Register for 2010. 2011. Kyyiv, 322 (in Ukrainian).
Derzhavnyi reiestr subiektiv pleminnoi spravy u tvarynnytstvi za 2018 rik – State Register of Cattle Breeders for 2018 [elektronnyi resurs] rezhym dostupu: URL://animalbreedingcenter.org.ua/derjplemreestr (in Ukrainian).
Podstrieshnyi, O. P., M. I. Sakhatskyi, and O. P. Podstrieshnyi. 2000. Hospodarcho-korysni oznaky ta henetychna struktura krosiv yaiechnykh kurei – Economically useful traits and genetic structure of crosses of egg chickens. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoi derzhavnoi akademii veterynarnoi medytsyny im. S. Z. Hzhytskoho – Scientific Bulletin of Lviv State Academy of Veterinary Medicine. S. Z. Gzitsky. 2(3):120–124 (in Ukrainian).
Hladii, M. V., Yu. P. Polupan, D. M. Basovskyi, L. V. Vyshnevskyi, S. I. Kovtun, O. V. Sydorenko, B. Ye. Podoba, O. D. Biriukova, N. L. Rieznykova, S. L. Voitenko, P. P. Dzhus, S. V. Kuzebnyi, P. I. Sharan, O. V. Kruhliak, A. P. Kruhliak, Yu. V. Milchenko, S. V. Pryima, Yu. M. Reznikova, I. S. Martyniuk, O. M. Zhukorskyi, O. I. Kostenko, M. I. Bashchenko, M. M. Kvasha, O. V. Romanova, V. I. Ladyka, L. M. Khmelnychyi, Yu. V. Vdovychenko, V. S. Kozyr, O. V. Denysiuk, and O. O. Katerynych. 2018. Prohrama zberezhennia henofondu lokalnykh i znykaiuchykh porid silskohospodarskykh tvaryn v Ukraini na 2017–2025 roky – Program for the preservation of the gene pool of local and endangered breeds of farm animals in Ukraine for 2017–2025. Sumy, 85 (in Ukrainian).
Vojtenko, S. L., L. V. Vishnevskij, V. G. Cybenko, and S. N. Petrenko. 2018. Sostoyanie otechestvennogo svinovodstva i razvedenie svinej lokal'nih porod – State of domestic pig breeding and pig breeding of local breeds. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii «Problemy otrasli svinovodstva» – Collection of scientific papers of the international scientific-practical conference "Problems of the pig industry". Zhodino, 19–27 (in Belarusian).
Bashchenko, M. I., M. V. Hladii, Yu. F. Melnyk, M. Ya. Yefimenko., A. P. Kruhliak., Yu. P. Polupan, L. V. Vyshnevskyi, O. D. Biriukova, O. V. Kruhliak, S. V. Kuzebnyi, and S. V. Pryima. 2017. Stan i perspektyvy rozvytku molochnoho skotarstva Ukrainy – Status and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in Ukraine. Rozvedennia i henetyka tvaryn – Breeding and genetics of animals. 54:6–14 (in Ukrainian).
Tvarynnytstvo Ukrainy: stan, problemy, shliakhy rozvytku (1991–2017–2030 rr) / za redaktsiieiu M. I. Bashchenka. 2017. – Livestock of Ukraine: state, problems, ways of development (1991–2017–2030). Kyyiv, Ahrarna nauka, 160 (in Ukrainian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.