FEATURES OF FORMING THE EXTERIOR OF FIRSTCALF COWS UKRAINIAN RED-AND-WHITE DAIRY BREED BY INDICATORS OF MEASUREMENTS AND BODY STRUCTURE INDICES
The research was conducted to study the exterior of the first-calf cows of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed in the herd of enterprise LLC "Mlyniv complex" (v. Pohozha Krynytsia, Romny branch of Sumy region) by major measurements and body structure indices.
According to the results of researches, the measurements of the traits cows' first-calf in the controlled herd of Mlyniv complex testify to the realization of hereditary possibilities in the development of the body structure of animals of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed in Sumy region.
The level of height measurements of first-calf cows showed that animals in this farm provided with suitable conditions that allow them to realize their genetic development potential in the process of growing. Average height at withers (132.5 cm) and rump (141.7 cm) exceeds the parameters of the desired type and criteria for selection of first-calf cows of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed, recommended by the prospective breeding program of Sumy region for 2011–2020, respectively on 1.3 and 1.7 cm.
The average indices of latitudinal measurements of type traits of first-calf cows of controlled breed: rump width (51.5 cm), hipbone width (49.4 cm) and ischial humps (34.2 cm) well characterize the development of pelvis.
The pastern girth characterizes the development of the skeletal frame of animals and the type of constitution. The average measurement of the pastern in the first-calf cows at 19.2 cm indicates about the dairy type of animal and meets the requirements of the desired type.
A more detailed understanding of the exterior type of animals in its correlative and harmonious development made it possible to make the body structure indices calculated by the appropriate formulas. About satisfactory overall development of the body structure of cows was evidenced by the index of long legs index, the average level of which 45.8% corresponds to animals of the desired type (45–46%) for this breed, and the stretching index at the level of 121.8% – the conformity of estimated first-calf cows to dairy type (121–123%).
The thoracic index complements the pelvic thorax, characterizing chest development. A smaller index was inherent in dairy cattle. The average thorax index indicates on the dairy type of first-calf cows (58–62%) and decreasing in chest width, and an increase in their depth. The chest depth index in the average range of 54.2% approaches to the desired level (55–56%) and indicates about optimal ratio of chest depth to the height at withers for dairy cattle.
Given that the parameters of measurements of the exterior traits characterizing the desired dairy type of animals, with corresponding level of their correlative development, expressed by body structure indices, meet to the harmonious development of the first-calf cow model of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed , comparing the obtained actual numerical values of overgrowth (107.1%), narrow quarters (156.6%), boniness (14.4%), massiveness (146.0%), broad chest (31.8%) and pelvic (95.9) %) with target values of 107.0; 151.0; 14.0; 142.0; 33.0 and 96.0%, we can conclude that the estimated first-calf cows of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed correspond to animals of the desired type except massiveness index, by most indices.
In general, the animals of the experimental herd differ in a strong constitution type with deep chests, well-developed dense muscles, sufficiently elastic skin, firm and thin skeleton frame that determine the dairy type, good health and endurance, which very important when using cows in modern technological conditions.
According to results of the research was found that by measurements of the first-calf cows of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed, they have excellent development of the body structure, and the level of indices indicate the positive dynamics of the exterior formation of animals towards the dairy type at the present stage of their selection.
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