NEW PARTNENCLONES OF BOOMBYX MORI L. FROM THE COLLECTION OF GENETIC RESOURCES OF UKRAINE
The purpose of the research is to investigate the ability to heat the parthenogenesis of new breeds silkworm T–1, T–2, D–1 silkworm breeds and to establish the reproductive, biological and technological parameters of the T–1clone, T–2clone and D–1clone created on their basis.
Materials and methods of research. The research was conducted on the basis of the laboratory of silkworm and technical entomology of the National Scientific Center "Institute of Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine" during 2016–2018.
For the study of the ability of new breeds of silkworm D–1, T–1, T–2 to the thermal parthenogenesis, the females of the aforementioned silkworms were used. Activation of the gravel to ameiotic parthenogenesis (complete thermal pathogenesis) was carried out using the method B. L. Astaurov
The reproductive parameters of parthenoclon were studied: the ability to parthenogenesis (%), the total number of eggs (pieces), the weight of one egg (mg), the output of caterpillars from eggs (%).
The economic-valuable and technological indicators of the created clones were investigated: viability of caterpillars (%), cocoon yields of 1 g of caterpillars (kg), silkworm cocoons (%), cocoon mass (g), length of filaments (m), length of continuous- unwound thread (m), raw silk output (%).
The main results obtained. It is established that the new clones of silkworm silk created by the ability to parthenogenesis are at the control level. In terms of the viability of caterpillars in 2018, they are somewhat inferior to Ukr.28, but according to the results of three years of research, this indicator is at a level, and T–2clone even exceeds control by 4.84% (p < 0,05). Similar results are obtained on the basis of the weight of the cocoon.
By the cocoon yield, the new Parthenoclon exceeds control in 2018 by an average of 0.44 kg and for three years of research – by 0.50 kg. The indicator of silk worminess of cocoons in T–1clones and D–1clones was at the level of the indicator Ukr.28clones, at T–2clone – was higher than the parameters of part-clones and control at 0.83–2.73%. The length of the thread, the length of the continuously unwound yarn and the output of raw silk is dominated by T–2clone – its values exceed the similar indicators of T–1clone and D–1clone, dominated by control indicators – Ukr.28clones.
Thus, the new clones of silkworm, adapted to the changed climate in Ukraine, were introduced and evaluated. They can be components for the creation of new clone-breed hybrids with high biological and technological performance. The stands of silkworm hybrids will provide domestic branches of production of organic raw materials for the production of modern products. This will allow import substitution of organic goods for everyday use to our country's inhabitants. Domestic production of organic products in the form of clothing, medical and cosmetic products will provide the work of thousands of compatriots and reduce the cost of goods in comparison with imported ones.
Prospects for further scientific research are the creation of new clone-breed hybrids with high biological and technological indices for Ukraine.
Conclusions. 1. Three new high-yield silkworm clones with the optimal combination of silk productivity and ability to ameiotic parthenogenesis, characterized by the following biological indices, are derived: T–1clone – caterpillar livelihood 84.13%, cocoon yield 3.76 kg, cocoon mass 2.30 g, silkiness 21.62%; T–2clone – caterpillars' survivability 88.94%, cocoon yield 4.23 kg, cocoon mass 2.53 g, silicone 24.25%; D–1clone. – The viability of the caterpillars is 85.52%, the cocoons are 4.08 kg, the cocoon mass is 2.41 g, and the silicone content is 21.62%.
- The estimation of reproductive indices of created T–1clone, T–2clone and D–1clone clones was made and their ability to heat parthenogenesis was determined. The highest ability to ameiotic parthenogenesis has D–1clone – 72.73%.
- Parthenoclones T–1clone, T–2clone and D–1clone for reproductive characteristics are at the level of the control clone Ukr.28clones and are promising for clone- breed hybridization.
- The technological parameters of the new clones are established: the T–2clone is the leader in the length of the filament (1432m), the length of the continuous unwound yarn (734 m) and the output of raw silk (46.3%) – its parameters exceed the similar indicators in T–1clone and D–1clone at 2.5% and prevail over control indicators – Ukr.28clones – by 5.5%.
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