DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING IN KIROVOGRAD REGION
Dairy cattle breeding is one of the leading livestock sectors whose purpose is to ensure the production of high quality dairy raw materials in volumes meeting the scientifically grounded standards of state food security and expanding the export potential of the agrarian sector.
The purpose of our research was to study the status and prospects of dairy cattle breeding in the Kirovograd region.
Material and methods of research. The research was carried out on the basis of the electronic database of breeding goals (including 2312 cows), official statistics and estimates of cattle of various breeds that are involved in the production of dairy direction in the breeding farms of the Kirovograd region. The analysis used zootechnical and statistical methods. The calculations were carried out using the software package "STATISTICA-6,1"
Results. According to the research (2001–2018), the cattle population in the Kirovograd oblast decreased by a factor of 2.6. Thus, as of January 1, 2018, its number constituted 96.3 thousand heads in all categories of farms, 53.1 thousand of them were cows, the number of which also decreased by 2.4 times. Specific gravity of cattle population of farms remains significant and makes up 72.7%, and 80.6% in the livestock of cows. The largest number of cows of agricultural enterprises declined significantly. Thus, as of January 1, 2018, their number was 10.3 thousand goals, which is 4.7 times less than in the same period of 2001. In the households there is also a tendency for a permanent reduction of cows, the difference is, respectively, 37.0 thousand heads or 46.4%
The development of dairy cattle breeding is characterized by two opposite tendencies: reduction of livestock of cows and increase of their productivity. Thus, in agricultural enterprises in 2010, compared to 2000, hopes per cow increased by 2.5 times, in all categories of farms by 1.8 times. In 2017, the increase in dairy costs in agricultural enterprises compared to 2010 amounted to 60.0% in farms of all categories 12.2%.
The researches found that in the agricultural enterprises of the oblast as of January 1, 2018 there are 26256 head of cattle, including 10281 cows. The breeding part of the existing cows is 3.013 heads, 29.3% of the total number located in 10 breeding farms.
The analysis of the genealogy structure showed that the experimental population of cows belongs to 18 lines and related groups of which the most numerous Chifa 1427381 – 20.4%, Starbuck 352790 – 20.1%, Henev 1629391 – 18.6% , Eleusis 1491007 – 11.2%, Family 267150 – 10.8%.
Among the indicated lines, the lowest level of milk productivity was first-born cows. The 1491007, the milk of milk for 305 days of lactation was 4466 ± 99.8 kg, and the milk fat was 168.2 ± 6.5 kg. Analogues l Starbak 352779 was characterized by the highest milk productivity, its level was 5696 + 98.8 kg and 224.9 ± 9.7 kg, respectively. The difference in stomach was 1230 ± 140.4 kg (td = 10.2) and at the release of milk fat 56.7 ± 5.28 kg (td = 10.2) at P < 0.001. However, the latter were markedly less service life (125 against 168 days) and logically higher reproduction rate compared to other lines.
An analysis of the intensity of the formation of live weight of young animals has been established for its highest growth in heifers of controlled herds in the period from 9 to 12 months. Thus, in animals of Ukrainian red breed, the growth rate of live weight during this period was 75 kg, Ukrainian red-shrimp 61 kg, Ukrainian black-and-white 73 kg, Holstein 76 kg. Accordingly, during this period, the average daily gain of live weight of young breeds of these breeds was 833 g; 678 g; 811 g, 835 g. The sharp fluctuations of average daily increments during growing periods, first of all, testify to the unequal conditions of growing and feeding young animals than the breed differences. In general, as a result of the analysis of the formation of live weight of heifers, a significant level of phenotypic variability was observed, which confirms sufficient genetic resources and preconditions for selection on the given sign.
Therefore, proceeding from the above, in the long run, selection work for breeding improvement of cattle breeding farms of the Kirovograd region should be conducted in accordance with certain promising directions according to groups of breeds.
Conclusions. A very important factor in the growth of milk production in the Kirovograd region is high-yield pedigree cattle. The main task on the way of bringing breeding cases in dairy farming to the modern level is the introduction of computer breeding records in breeding farms. This will allow to estimate in the near future bulls-pedigrees, which were used in the past in these farms, to allocate among them complex improvers for precisely the specific conditions and maximally attract them for reproduction. On the other hand, a reliable clogging of poor quality in the genetic sense of sperm production, which leads to negative consequences, will be posed.
When establishing the assessment of the breeding value of bulls and developing a single plan of breeding and breeding work in the region, one can proceed to the next step of improving breeding and breeding business, introducing a progressive method of raising the breeding value of animals of large-scale breeding. As a result, the profit from the breeding of highly productive animals, well adapted to specific conditions, will significantly exceed the costs. At the same time, the proposed measures will allow the breeding business to be brought up to the modern world level and stimulate highly productive cattle breeding.
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