PERSPECTIVES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINE DAIRY CATTLE BREEDING UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF AN ORGANIC PRODUCTION
The experience of function organic farms in Ukraine was analyzed. In the process of substantiating the organization of dairy cattle breeding under the conditions of an organic farm, the key role is played by the successful selection of cattle breed and the solution to the problem of ensuring effective channels for the sale of products in order to achieve profitability. It was established that Simmental and Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breeds showed themselves well in conditions of large-scale eco-production. In the small-scale sector, local breeds of cattle will work best to solve the problem of restoring and preserving the number of animals of local and endangered breeds of cattle. The experience of organizing the production of organic dairy products can be implemented in the experimental base of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine.
The purpose of the article is to investigate the organizational aspects of efficient production of organic products and its prospects in dairy cattle breeding Ukraine.
Materials and methods of research. The research was carried out on the data of the private enterprise "Galex-Agro" (Zhytomyr region), The State enterprise "Experimental farm "Niva" of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets NAAS (Cherkasy region); Observations of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine, State Register of Pedigree Affairs in Animal Husbandry. In the course of research, patent research, content analysis of scientific sources and regulatory documents, structural analysis and synthesis, comparative methods, statistical, economical and mathematical methods were used.
The number of eco-farms is currently insignificant n Ukraine. Eco-friendly milk and beef are produced mainly by small farms, agricultural cooperatives and households. The largest number of domestic producers of organic dairy products is concentrated in the small-scale sector (farmers, households, production cooperatives, etc.). They are characterized by a close location to large cities or the presence of a compact cow population in ecologically clean areas, a closed cycle of production. Owners and managers of these farms are mostly supportive of the environmental lifestyle.
Among the largest "players" of this sector are companies with a closed cycle of production of organic agricultural products. This is a privately owned company “Galex-Agro” (Novograd-Volynskyi and Baranivskyi districts, Zhytomyr region), a Ukrainian-Swiss agrarian enterprise – a private joint-stock company “EthnoProduct” (northeast of Chernihiv region), limited liability company "Staryi Poritsk" (Volyn region).
The analysis of objective factors reducing the economic efficiency of domestic agricultural production, in particular due to the crisis in Ukraine's economic growth (the abolition of fiscal stimulation of the industry, the lack of access to external sources of financing, price disparity on agricultural products and means of production, and climate change, etc.), has necessitated the search for new ways of development of state research farms. So promising direction the scientists of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets and specialists of husbandry see introduction of organic farming system.
The first stage of the transition to eco-management was determined by the receipt of a certificate of growing of cereals with the subsequent registration of the production of organic dairy raw materials for the production of organic food. Creation of a special raw material zone for these needs involves the introduction of modern advanced technology of growing fodder crops (with elements of energy conservation and environmental feasibility) for the production of animal feed in accordance with the requirements of safety and quality.
In the process of substantiating the organization of dairy cattle breeding in the conditions of an organic farm, the key role belongs to the successful selection of the breed. Given the increased demands on cows' health and nutrition, more combined animals will be more productive. They have a rather high level of milk production and differ from specialized breeds with better meat qualities. Dairy cattle to achieve a sufficient level of productivity may more use rude and succulent feed with less concentrated costs. Dairy cattle to achieve a sufficient level of productivity may more use rude and succulent feed with less concentrated costs.
The main breed of the combined trend, which is well-known in the conditions of large-scale eco-production, is the Simmental (kept in privately owned company “Galex-Agro”). In the State enterprise "Experimental farm "Niva", as well as in PE "Agroecology ", the pedigree cattle of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breeds are kept (Table 1). The cows of this breed have a strong constitution, well adapted to contain in modern livestock complexes, machine milking in milking halls, have a high genetic potential of milk production. Average milk yields for one cow of this breed in Ukraine in 2017 amounted to 6236 kg with a fat content of 3.91%, protein – 3.23%. In the leading farms, Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed produce about 9–10 thousand kg of milk for 305 days of lactation.
In the conditions of PE" Galex-Agro" and PE "Agroecology", a high level of milk yield has been achieved, while simultaneously maintaining a high level of health and reproduction of animals (the output of calves for 100 cows is approaching 100 goals). Consequently, the Simmental and Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breeds showed themselves well in the conditions of large-scale eco-production, which gives grounds to predict the increase in productivity and reproduction of dairy cattle in State enterprise "Experimental farm "Niva" provided that the transition to the production of organic products of dairy cattle on the farm. Planned economic effect is expected at the level of 550 thousand UAH. per year.
For small producers, when choosing a breed, it is more important to focus on the ability of animals to adapt to environmental conditions, so local breeds of cattle are best placed under these conditions. These include Lebedynska, Ukrainian Whiteheaded, Brown Carpathian, Ukrainian Gray, Pinzgauer, Red Steppe and others. Animals of these breeds during the natural selection for a long time have improved adaptive ability and resistance to disease. In EU countries, farmers use local breeds of dairy cattle to produce high-quality, environmentally friendly livestock products. The experience of European countries shows that, due to the introduction of organic production in breeding dairy cattle breeding, it is also possible to solve the problem of restoring and preserving the number of animals of local and endangered breeds of cattle.
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