INFLUENCE OF SOME PARATIPICAL FACTORS ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION OF DAIRY COWS
Scientific and production experiments were carried out on cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White diary breed (UBAWD) of SE "Seagull" (branch "Lisne") during 2016–2017. The anatomical and physiological state of genital organs of cows was determined by the method of clinical and gynecological research of animals before conducting experiments and during them every 40–50 days. In total 486 cows were kept under control, which were kept in typical rooms with running platforms, but the active motivation of animals was clearly insufficient. Feeding cows according to the recommended standards. The milk yield from the cow in 2017 was 7813 kg.
The experiments studied the effect of feeding cows during the dry period, the conditions of retention and some other paratypic factors on the course of the genera and the postnatal period, the duration of the service period and the fertility of cows.
In analyzing the research results, personal records and veterinary documentation were used.
In conducting experiments, it was found that normal calving was in 89% of cows, and severe and pathological – in 11% of cases.
The main diseases in the afterlife period were: detention of the litter – 9.5%, postpartum endometritis – 21.5%, hypofunction of the ovaries – 23.0%, persistent yellow ovarian bodies – 25.6% and others. Normal intervals between stages of excitation of the sexual cycle (18–22 days) were in 63% of cows, and violations of the rhythm of sexual cycle, associated with dysfunction of the ovaries and missed the hunt – 30% of animals. Subunvulation of the genital organs of the cows contributed to the diseases of the limbs, udder and digestive disorders.
During 2016–2017, the effect of feeding cows (173 g.) in the dry period on the course of calving, post-autumn period and their fertility was studied. Under the same conditions, keeping cows in the maternity ward and feeding rough and succulent feeds concentrated feeds fed cows of the control group (98 heads) to 1–2 kg daily during the dry period, and experimental (75 heads) – for 18–20 days to calving 2–3 kg.
A positive difference was found in favor of cows of the experimental group: there was a more active stage of expulsion of the fetus, less delay of the placenta (by 7%) and endometritis (by 12%), the duration of the postoperative regenerative period decreased by 8.6 days; service period – 19.0 days; fertility from two inseminans was higher by 5.7%.
Study of the reproductive capacity of cows at the hotel in different seasons showed that the recovery period was shorter by 11 days in the presence of cows in 3–4 quarters, and the service period – by 23.2 days at hotel in I and IV sq. The average duration of the recovery period was 79.5 days, while the service period was 123.4 days. The longest duration of the joint ventricle was in cows at hotel during the hot summer days of the year.
The average fertilization rate from the first insemination of 339 cows was 44.9% with fluctuations in individual groups of milkers from 26.8% to 55.0%. The following indicators were in the number 1 and number 3 (respectively 26.8% and 31.4%). The best fertility rates were in groups № 4, 6 and 7, where there were more cows of the second and third lactation, and the responsible attitude of the milkers to work in organizing cows walks and sexually explicit hunting.
When comparing the assessment of the duration of the IP and SP in full-age cows and cows, the first-born, taking into account 225 goals. It was found that these indicators were longer in primitive cows – 20.7 days respectively and 21.9 days in relation to full-age cows. The obtained results are completely consistent with the results obtained by a number of both domestic and foreign researchers. More attention is needed to grow heifers and to prepare newborns for delivery.
In 15–17% of cows at and after the hotel, gynecological diseases that occurred in the presence of gastrointestinal diseases, lameness, mastitis and others were diagnosed. This has negatively affected the overall performance of the herd.
In studying the duration of HP and SP in healthy and sick cows after calving, it was found that if the SP in healthy cows lasts 73.4 days, then in patients – 116.3 days (the difference was 42.9 days), and the difference in the duration of the joint venture reached 98.7 days.
On the basis of the results of the research, it can be concluded that the reproductive function of the cows is influenced by such paratypic factors as feeding animals in the dry period, the temperature factor (time of year), the human factor (the effect of milking on a group of cows), age and physiological state of cows in the hotel and in the afterlife period.
When feeding 2–3 kg of bovine feed for cows, together with rough and juicy fodder for 18–20 days prior to calving, the recovery period decreased by 8.6 days and service period – by 19 days, and fertility from two inseminals increased by 5.7%, reaching 85.3%.
The smallest duration of the service-period was in the presence of cows in the I and IV quarters year (107.7–117.1 days).
In primary cows, the recovery period was longer than that of full-age cows by 20.7 days, and the service period was 21.9 days.
In the physiologically healthy cows after calving, the recovery period lasted an average of 73.4 days and service period – 98.7 days, and in patients, after the prescribed treatment – respectively 116.3 days and 197.4 days.
2. Gordon, A. 1988. Kontrol' vosproizvodstva sel'skohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh – Control of the reproduction of farm animals. M : Agropromizdat, 415 (in Russian).
3. Prokof'ev, M. I. 1983. Reguljacija razmnozhenija sel'skohozjajstvennyh zhivotnyh – Regulation of reproduction of farm animals. Leningrad, Nauka, 264 (in Russian).
4. Bashchenko, M. I., Y. Z. Sirats'kyy, H. S. Sharapa, S. Yu. Demchuk, O. V. Boyko, V. V. Fedorovych, S. V. Kuzebnyy, and T. S. Plotko. 2011. Rekomendatsiyi z vidtvorennya velykoyi rohatoyi khudoby novykh porid – Recommendations for reproduction of cattle of new breeds. K. : Chubyns'ke, PP «Lyuksar», 48 (in Ukrainian).
5. Mel'nychuk, D. O., H. O. Bohdanov, I. I. Ibatullin, V. I. Kostenko, V. M. Kandyba, and M. S. Havrylenko. 2009. Rekomendatsiyi z normuvannya hodivli vysokoproduktyvnoyi molochnoyi khudoby – Recommendations on the rationing of feeding of high-yield dairy cattle. K. : Vydavnychyy tsentr NUBiP, 51 (in Ukrainian).
6. Ruban, Ju. D. 1993. Selekcija skota po tehnologicheskim priznakam (uchebnoe posobie) – Cattle breeding according to technological features (textbook). Har'kov, 66 (in Russian).
7. Chomaev, A. M., and O. S. Mitjashova. 2009. Vlijanie razlichnyh faktorov na vosproizvoditel'nuju funkciju vysokoproduktivnyh molochnyh korov – Influence of various factors on the reproductive function of highly productive dairy cows. Zootehnija – Zootechniya. 5:27–29 (in Russian).
8. Sharapa, H. S. 1988. Neplidnist' koriv i telyts' ta borot'ba z neyu – Infertility of cows and heifers and fighting it. K. : Urozhay, 136 (in Ukrainian).
9. Sharapa, H. S. 2015. Vidtvorennya i produktyvnist' koriv – Reproduction and productivity of cows. Ahrarnyy tyzhden'. Ukrayina – Agrarian week. Ukraine. 5:76–77 (in Ukrainian).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.