FEATURES OF INHERITANCE OF GENOTYPES OF BLOOD GROUPS ON SYSTEM EAB EMBRYOS CATTLE BREED UKRAINIAN WHITEHEADED
Introduction. In resolving the problem of biodiversity conservation of genetic resources of animals, the in-depth characterization of the gene pool of rocks in the global program, which was initiated by the Commission on Animal Genetic Resources of FAO in 1993, attaches great importance. In accordance with this program, FAO recommends analyzing the diversity of pets in collaboration with the International Society of Genetics (ISAG).In the prominent place in the characterization of genetic resources of animals are genetic markers, which include polymorphisms of erythrocytic antigens (blood groups). Immunogenetic analysis of breeds under factors that until now have not been the objects of breeding and were not subject to directed action of a person, gives an objective idea about the peculiarities of rocks in terms of their history, genealogical connections between them, their similarities and differentiations, and also about the gene pool of cattle as a separate species.
At the immunogenetic monitoring in the system of conservation of biodiversity of the animal world of the planet in the context of agricultural production is the solution to a number of problems, both at the population and individual level. At the population level, the immunogenic analysis is mainly aimed at assessing the genetic situation in gene pool herds, making it possible to make an objective notion about genetic changes in the gene pool of aboriginal and disappearing small-numbered rocks under the influence of natural and artificial selection.
The preliminary results of the analysis of the genetic situation in the flock of the White-headed Ukrainian breed clearly indicate that at the present stage of evolution it has a certain originality and specificity for polymorphic loci of immunogenic markers and a sufficiently high level of genetic diversity of animals. On the one hand, the high frequency of the specific BGT2G'B'', BGI1OTYG'Q', YY' alleles EAB blood groups and their manifestation for several generations is clearly observed in the breed, which gives grounds for linking them with high adaptive value. Therefore, maintaining the focus of natural selection with the appropriate artificial way of selecting the parent pairs that bear the bearers of these specific markers is important enough.
Purpose of work. Determination of predicted genotypes according to the EAB system of blood groups in embryos of the cattle Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed, laid for long-term storage at the Bank of animal genetic resources of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS.
Materials and methods of research. For the analysis, blood samples were taken from 5 dairy cows of the Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed of LLC "Podilskyi hospodar" at Khmelnitska oblast, from which embryos were obtained using 3 bulls (721 Sygnal’s, 235 Orel’s and 561 Neapol’s) for fertilization of the sperm stored in the Bank of animal genetic resources of IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS and their genotypes were determined according to the EAB system of blood groups. Determination of the genotype of half of the dairy cows by the EAB system of blood groups was conducted at the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS in accordance with the Instruction on the immunogenetic studies of pedigree animals.
To evaluate the inheritance of blood groups in embryos, the materials of previous studies on immunogenetic testing of Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed pedigrees by alleles of the EAB system of blood groups were also taken into account.
The prognosis of possible embryonic genotypes in the EAB system by blood groups was determined based on the analysis of the inheritance of the alleles of parents and donor cows with their binding to the genotypes of their parents.
Research results. An immunogenetic analysis of 5 cows donor Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed for erythrocytic antigens of the EAB blood group was carried out and their genotypes were established to confirm the authenticity of their origin.
Naturally, the allelofund on the EAB system of blood groups of donor cows is full of alleles of their fathers – 263 Som, 629 Plus, 235 Orel and 447 Zond.
A genealogical analysis of 30 embryos of the Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed, laid for long-term storage at the bank of animal genetic resources of the IABG nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS, and structured individual pedigrees for the prediction of the inheritance of their possible genotypes by the EAB system of blood groups according to the given scheme.
Directional targeting can provide embryos with a possible combination of specific markers of donor mothers and fathers. For this purpose, the schemes of directed heirs with the use of the 721 Sygnal’s genotype EAB BGI1OT2G'B''G/BG'KYO, 235 Orel’s – EAB G'G'/BGT2G'P'B''G'' and 561 Neapol’s – EAB BGT2G'P'B''G'/YA'Y'.
Two daughters of 263 Som’s 9333 Nadra and 9318 Vyshka cows – carriers of identical genotypes, inherited the genus allele EAВYQ'. Accordingly, when selection to them the bull’s 721 Sygnal is expected to receive heterozygous descendants. They can inherit the marker genotype EABI1Q'/BGI1OT2G'B''G'' with a probability of 25%.
In the genotype of the 3676 Naryadna cow, missing marker alleles are characteristic of the breed. Therefore, when picking up the 721 Sygnal pedigree, it is desirable to inherit the descendants of the genotypes EAB YA'Y'/BGI1OTG'B''G' and EAB G'G'/BGI1OTG'B''G''.
For picking up a cow 3843 Norka of the 721 Orel sire is expected to obtain all possible heterozygous descendants. For this combination, the inheritance of the marker allele EAB BGT2G'P'B''G' is predicted.
In the selection of the cow 0064 Baronesa of the 561 Neapol’s, the homozygous descendants with genotype EABBGT2G'P'B''G'/BGT2G'P'B''G' are expected to be obtained. From such a combination of parent pairs descendants will inherit all possible variants of genotypes with specific markers for the breed.
As a result of the targeted selection of parent pairs in the embryos of the Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed, inheritance in the genotypes of descendants of alleles is expected: BGT2G'P'B''G'', BGI1OTG'B''G'', BG'KYO, YQ', G'G'', YA'Y' and b on the EAB system of blood groups. They can be homozygous and heterozygous and can inherit markers for allele breeds in their genotypes.
Conclusions. An immunogenetic analysis of cow donor animals of the Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed, from which embryos were obtained and laid down for long-term storage at the Bank of animal genetic resources of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS, indicates that they are carriers of EAB – specific alleles specific for the given breed of blood grops, and at the same time there is a rather high level of genetic diversity of animals.
In determining the predicted genotypes on the EAB system, blood groups in the embryos of the cattle Whiteheaded Ukrainian breed based on the analysis of the possible inheritance of alleles from parents and donor cows, predicts a rather high genetic variability inheritance of embryos specific for breed genotypes, which is sufficiently important to maintain genetic diversity in breed by using an artificial selection of parent pairs.
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