SCIENTIFIC AND ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF GENERATION, GENETICS, REPRODUCTION BIOTECHNOLOGY AND PROTECTION OF THE GENOFONDS IN LIVESTOCK BREEDING
The article highlights the main achievements, problems and directions of the further development of the landing stock of Ukraine, the prospects of scientific research of Institute of Animal breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of the NAAS in the areas of breeding, genetics, biotechnology of reproduction and preservation of the gene pool of farm animals.
Institute is the initiator of four dairy herds (Ukrainian Red-and-White, Black-and-White, Red and Brown dairy bread) and four meat (Ukrainian, Volyn, Polissya and Southern meat) breeds of cattle. Its employees carry out scientific support of regional livestock development programs, development of systems for the creation and management of commercial herds of dairy and beef cattle, which contributes to solving the global food problem, and to ensure the nutrition security of Ukrainian population.
The newly created Ukrainian Black-and-White, Red-and-White and Red dairy breeds for the predominantly intra-species breeding improvement and limited access to the gene pool of the Holstein breeding breed should remain the main areas of the breeding improvement of domestic dairy cattle breeding. The existing breeding system in cattle in Ukraine does not meet international standards and practically does not work in a complex way, and it threatens the final destruction of domestic breeding livestock, a significant dependence of the country on the import of breeding resources. To solve the problem, a new structure of the breeding service with a clear definition of the organizational basis for the management of tribal affairs and functional responsibilities of the subjects of its implementation was proposed, the formation of a centralized national information base for the identification, registration, origin and performance of animals, the keeping of state books of breeding animals as the basis estimation of their genetic value, and its realization is entrusted to the state enterprise created at the institute on Main scientific-production informational-elective center in livestock.
Promising areas for farm animal breeding research are grouped into gene identification and the degree of development of quantitative attributes (QTL), early prediction and evaluation of breeding value of animals using markers (MAS).
Research on molecular genetics is aimed at improving genetic analysis methods at individual and population levels, monitoring herds of cattle according to different types of genetic markers. Genetic systems for testing animals in 9 loci quantitative attributes, which are involved in the formation of qualitative indicators of dairy and meat productivity. A work is under way to test animals for the polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene of the major histocompatibility complex in animal populations for resistance to or susceptibility to mastitis.
Biotechnology research focuses on reproductive biology methods, first of all, manipulations with gametes of farm animals, in vitro fertilization of pre-matured oocytes of cows and pigs, and others. The technology of obtaining oocyte cumulus complexes from ovaries of animals, the conditions of their storage, cultivation and fertilization out of the organism, which allows receiving a much larger number of embryos for both scientific and practical purposes, is developed. A separate direction is the work to improve the biotechnological methods of reproduction of farm animals using nanomaterials. It is based on the application in cryopreservation and sperm production of sperm and ovules of various variants of biologically active substances that are applied to highly dispersed silica molecules (albumin of blood serum of cattle, N-acetylneuramic acid – UFS / BSA / NANA).
In order to monitor and preserve the diversity of genetic resources of agricultural animals in Ukraine, a complex of works under NAAS scientific program "System of work in populations and preservation of biological diversity of genetic resources of farm animals" ("Preservation of gene pool of breeds") with a coordination center on the basis of Institute of Animal breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS. The research resulted in the development of the Program for the preservation of the gene pool of local and endangered breeds of farm animals in Ukraine for 2017–2025, in which the methodological bases for preservation of the gene pool were generalized, animal breeds were classified according to the criteria of risk, the minimum sizes of herds (real and virtual) of faulting species were substantiated, the minimum the size of subsidies for the proper functioning of small-numbered breeds, general methodological approaches to assessing the specificity of genetic resources are specified.
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