Peculiarities of the genetic structure of Grey Ukrainian breed cattle by complex genotypes
Reducing national genetic resources or gene pools of animals and plants is one of the risks of industrialization of agriculture. Loss of breed diversity, along with the disappearance of unique genetic combinations, leads to a limitation of the possibility of breeding work.
It is clear that the main condition for the conservation of local breeds of animals is the discovery of their genetic diversity. Aboriginal rocks have excellent resistance to many diseases, a strong constitution, they are adapted to specific environmental conditions, which allows them to be used to improve existing and emerging breeds. When preserving indigenous rocks it is important to keep not only the appearance and biological properties of animals, but unique genes and their combinations.
In most countries of the world there are local (aboriginal) breeds of animals, whose contribution to the production of food and agricultural products could potentially be much larger and more weighty. In Ukraine such aboriginal breeds include Ukrainian Gray breed of cattle.
Modern molecular genetics makes it possible to detect genes associated with the economically useful features of farm animals. Dairy and meat productivity are complex quantitative characteristics, which are controlled by a large number of genetic loci. Therefore, the selection of several markers from the main genes by one sign will allow to more effectively evaluate the genetic potential of animal productivity.
The purpose of the work was to study the peculiarities of the genetic structure of Gray Ukrainian breed by complex genotypes – combinations of valuable genes that influence milk and meat productivity.
Blood samples (n = 173) from the cows of Gray Ukrainian breed from farms of the state enterprise "Markeevo" of the ISTP named after them were investigated. M. F. Ivanov NAAN Askaniya-Nova" – NNHSGTSV (Kherson oblast) and state enterprise" Polivanivka "DU IZK NAAN (Dnipropetrovsk region). Molecular-genetic studies were conducted on the basis of the Genetics Laboratory of the Institute of Animal Breeding and Genetics nd. a. M.V.Zubets of NAAS.
Today it is established that the quality of milk, its technological qualities and composition of cheese depend primarily on the alleles B of the gaps of kapa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin, which act complementary to each other. As a result of our research, integrated genotypes were identified at the same time for two genes of milk proteins in Gray Ukrainian breed of cattle of two populations.
In the population of "Markeevo", we found only 7 of the 9 theoretically possible genotypes.
The most commonly found in the cows of the gray Ukrainian breed Markeevo is the genotype CSN3AB / βLGVB. This genotype is found in one-third of the cows we examined (41 heads or 31%). It should be noted that the genotype CSN3AB / βLGAB was detected in each fifth cow (28 heads).
The CSN3AA / βLGBB (21 heads or 15.5%) and CSN3AA / βLGAB genotypes (16 heads or 12.1%) fell to third and fourth place respectively. The frequency of CSN3BV / βLGAA, CSN3AV / βLGAA genotypes slightly exceeded the threshold of 5%. Two genotypes of CSN3AA / βLGAA and CSN3AV / βLGAA in the examined animals of the gray Ukrainian breed Markeevo are absent.
In the population of gray cattle from Polivanivka, we got similar results. Thus, in the investigated animals of the 9 theoretically expected genotypes, 6 complex genotypes were identified for the kapa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin genes.
The leading positions among the complex genotypes of this population are genotypes that contain three and two alleles in the genes of milk proteins, respectively: CSN3AB / βLGBB (34.2%) and CSN3AA / βLGBB (31.5%). At the third place – homozygous for the genome of kapa-casein genotype CSN3AA / βLGAB (13.2%). This genotype occurs in every third tested cow. The CSN3AV / βLGAB and CSN3BV / βLGVB genotypes with the same value of 7.9% were detected in each fourth animal. The frequency of the CSN3BV / βLGAB genotype slightly exceeded the threshold of 5% and amounted to 5.3%.
Missing were 3 out of 9 theoretically possible genotypes: CSN3AA / βLGAA, CSN3AB / βLGAA and CSN3BV / βLGAA.
Hence, in Gray Ukrainian breed, the genotypes CSN3AV / βLGVB and CSN3AB / βLGAB, which have two or three alleles B, which are associated with the best milk coagulation in the manufacture of protein-containing products, prevail.
The peculiarities of the genetic structure of the gray Ukrainian breed of cattle based on the complex genotypes of CSN3, GH, βLG, TG 5 and CAPN1530 genes, which are associated with economically useful features of milk and meat productivity, were studied.It is established that in Gray Ukrainian breed the genotypes CSN3AB / βLGVB and CSN3AA / βLGBB, which have two and three alleles B, which are associated with the best milk coagulation in the production of protein-containing products, prevail.
Also, cows with the complex genotype GHLL / TGCT / CAPN1GG and GHLL / TG5CT / CAPN1GA are the most frequent. The genome of the growth hormone is dominated by the desired allele L and the genotype LL, which is characterized by higher growth rates in animals. Relatively to the thyroglobulin gene, the most commonly occurring C allele in the SS and CT genotypes. The frequency of the G allele was the highest in the genome of cappina, it is associated with a decrease in the elasticity of muscle fibers and is desirable for the animals of the meat sector of productivity.
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