Reproductive ability and dairy productivity of cows of different breeds
Experiments were carried out on cows of Holstein, Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy, Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy and Simmental breeds at CJSC Agro-Region, LLC "Shupiki", AF nd. a. Gorky and SE "Seagull" (“Chayka”). Milk productivity and reproductive capacity were studied by analyzing zootechnical and veterinary documentation, conducting systematic clinical and gynecological studies of cows with an interval of 40–60 days for the determination of the functional state of reproductive organs. Considered the conditions of keeping and feeding animals, the course of the cells, the implementation of the rules of artificial insemination and obstetric and gynecological dispensary. In the process of special experiments and studies, the duration of the regenerative period from calving to the first insemination of gynecologically healthy cows, fertility from the first insemination, the index of insemination, the duration of the service period, etc. were determined.
In experiments on 1,500 cows, it was found that, with an average lactation duration of 360 days, each cow was tired of an average of 8149.3 kg of milk. The duration of the recovery postoperative period was 80.2 days, and the service period was 135.9 days.
The longest (88.2 days) restoration period was in the Holstein breed cows with an average milk yield of lactation of 8672.3 kg. It lasted longer, comparing with other breeds, for 11–13 days. The service period was also long (161.9 days) and exceeded the rates of other breed cows by 24.4 and 53.6 days.
In our previous studies, it was found that the higher the dairy productivity of cows, the longer the restoration and service periods were at lower fertility rates from the first insemination.
The antagonism between high productivity and fertility of cows is partly due to the contradiction between lactation and sex dominant, and mainly due to the influence of many paratypic factors in the industrial milk production technology, among which nutrition and conditions for keeping animals, the presence or absence of a mosition, which, unfortunately, are ignored and as a result, underweight calves and milk.
The analysis of the relationship between productivity and reproductive ability of Holstein, Ukrainian Black-and-White and Red-and-White dairy breeds showed that on the average for three lactation, the highest hopes of milk were in the Holstein breed cows with an increase in the duration of the service period and a reduction in fertility from the first insemination. Detected differences in the duration of the service period in cows of different breeds, depending on the order of lactation. If it lasted on average in Holstein cows after the first lactation 173 days, after the second – 140 days and after the third – 117 days, then the cows of Ukrainian black-and-white dairy breed respectively, 136, 131, 102 days, and in cows Ukrainian red-and-white dairy – 164, 132, 127 days.
In experiments, taking into account 470 cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White and Red-and-White dairy breeds, it was found that on average, for three lactations, milk yields from cows amounted to 8044.3 kg of milk, and the duration of the recovery period was 77.4 days and service period 137.5 days.
In the study of fertilization of cows, depending on the terms of the first insemination after calving, it was found that within 21–40 days only 14.8% of cows showed a complete sexual cycle, during 41–60 days. – 28.2% and for 61–80 days. – 23,1% for fertilization 43,7 – 55,1 – 61,6%, respectively. This in most cases was due to the disadvantages of veterinary work in the preparation of cows for calving and post-autopsy.
In carrying out scientific and production experiments, taking into account 448 cows, it has been established that the restorative post-harvest period in imported Simmentals lasted on average 75 days, service period was 108.3 days, and fertility of cows from the first insemination was 50.6%. The difference in the indicators characterizing reproductive capacity of cows of both farms was insignificant. In the vast majority of cows (82–90%), calving was carried out without assistance or with 1–2 people.
The comparative estimation of the reproductive capacity of Simmental cows of Shupyky LLC by the method of pair-analogues (122 ch.) Showed that the recovery period after the first calving was 80.7 days, and after the second – 64.1 (decreased by 16.6 days). The service period was also shorter by 18.7 days, which had a positive effect on the productivity of cows and their fertility.
In Closed JSC “Agro-Region” (102 heads of paranalogs), the recovery period in cows after the first calving was an average of 87.9 days, and after the second – 67.2 days. The difference was 20.7 days. The service period after the second calving also declined from 115.2 to 107.6 days. The average fertility of cows from the first insemination for two lactations was 52.5%.
Postpartum complications and diseases of limbs diagnosed in 14–18% of cows have a negative effect on the restoration of reproductive function of cows after calving. In such cases, timely treatment of animals in accordance with the diagnosis and correction of ovarian function helps.
As a result of the systematic review and clinical and gynecological study of cows, the first-born cows found that out of 206 animals selected for testing only 8 heads. (42.2%), the postoperative recovery period lasted about two months. In 54 cows (26.2%), ovarian hypofunction was diagnosed and in 65 cases. (31,6%) is a persistent yellow ovarian body, which caused a delay in the stage of excitation of the sexual cycle to 108–118 days.
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