Genetic resource of breeding dairy herds: genetic potential of the best cows and efficiency of their reproduction
The purpose of our study was to determine the efficiency of reproduction of the genetic resources of the best cows of different breeds in the conditions of industrial dairy enterprises.
For the analysis, computerized accounting of breeding databases of enterprises and the primary zootechnical documentation (acts of culling, certificates of income for the offspring, logs of insemination of cows and heifers, Form 10 – mole, etc.) were used. In both (I and II) enterprises, the breeding stock was carried out by artificial insemination with the defective semen of the import booms-enhancers, in accordance with the breeding plan of the farm (Ayrshir or Golshin breeds). The stock of the reserve gene pool herd of the State Enterprise DG "Nd a. The Decembrists" of the Institute of Pig Production and APN NAA was pure-fledged, and the breeding reproducer of the STOV "AF "Petrodolynske" – is intermingled with different bloodlines on the basis of the domestic red steppe breed.
To determine the efficiency of repairing her own herds to the daughters of high-yielding cows of two tribal farms with a typical reproduction state for artificial insemination, comparisons were made with the enterprises where embryo transplantation was carried out by the working group of the embryo transplantation laboratory of PJSC "Poltavaplem-service" (III and IV) The data for calculations were obtained from the results published in the professional editions of the practical activity of the laboratory for 2010–2013.
The analysis showed that 87 cows of Ukrainian Red dairy breed, whose productivity exceeded the average by weight by more than 19%, was removed from the herds of the economy. Of the number of pure-breed cows of the Ayrshire breed (farm II), 37 animals were discarded with a productivity of 5,900 to 12,000 kg for better lactation.
The analysis showed that, on average, 2.95 lactation and 1.46 births of calves were obtained from each cow of the Ayrshire breed for lifetime, and from the local cows of the Ukrainian Red diary breed – respectively, 4.03 lactation and 1.91 calves. Moreover, the intensive removal of the cows of the Ayrshir breed at a young age was noted, than the cows of the Ukrainian Red diary breed. The data obtained do not confirm the results of a number of studies on the significant impact on the main indicators of dairy production of the herd size (flock in the I farm – 500 and in II – 650 cows). The data indicate a significant effect on the reproduction of the repair stock of paratypic factors that have developed in the conditions of a particular enterprise and region.
The revealed trend has necessitated the structuring of data on the birth of heifers in each herd in three age positions: young cows (first and second calving), full-fledged cows of the tribe (2–6 beds), elderly cows (7 and more lactations). At the same time, in the fourth position, a comparison was made of the number of daughters born of cows with different levels of productivity.
Particularly alarming is the tendency towards the reduction of the received repair calves born of cows from the second to the sixth lactation: the Ayrshire breed – on average 1.59 calves for cow, and the Ukrainian Red diary breed – 0.83, which is respectively less than 26 and 56%, as compared to those with smaller productive potential.
Due to the fact that the analysis of the level of reproduction of the genetic resources of the best cows of different herds revealed a negative tendency to permanent elimination from the gene pool of domestic breeds of valuable genotypes of female individuals for the traditional method of reproduction – artificial insemination, for the practical application perspective opportunity of obtaining additional daughters-transplants from high-yield donor cows after they leave the flock.
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