Characteristics of reproductive ability of cows Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cattle and Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle and Holstein breeds in SERF “Oleksandrivske”
The creation of highly productive herds depends on a number of factors that directly or indirectly influence the efficiency of milk production. The primary role is to improve the breeding and productive qualities of cattle on the basis of obtaining the reproduction of the best genotypes, which, when implementing genetic information, combine high and stable productivity with reproductive ability. This determines the relevance of further comparative studies on the impact of bulls, breed and reproductive ability on the dairy cattle breeding industry.
Materials and methods of research. The research was carried out in the herd of SERF Oleksandrivske of Vinnitsa region on animals of Ukrainian red-and-white dairy cattle (n = 474), Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle (n = 375) and Holstein (n = 395) breeds. It is considered 7 indicators of reproductive ability of heifers and cows (the age of the first insemination, the age of the first calving, the duration of pregnancy, the service period, the dry period, the period between calving and the reproductive ability) according to generally accepted methods.
It was established that heifers of Holstein, Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cattle and Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle were inseminated at the age of 18.1, 19.1 and 18.9 months. Accordingly, the age of the first calving in them was 27.6, 28.7 and 28.4 months. The period from the start of dairy cows to calving was within the optimal range and ranged from 58 to 68 days. The pregnancy of animals lasted an average of 279–281 days. The average service period of these breeds ranged from 135 to 164 days, respectively, the period between calving was 414–443 days, which is significantly higher than the optimal index of 44–74 and 50–78 days. Coefficients of reproductive ability were, in most cases, low and amounted to 0.84–0.92.
The heifers of the Holstein breed were inseminated at an earlier age in comparison with the heifers of Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy cattle for 30 days (P < 0.001) and Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy cattle for 22 days (P < 0.05). Accordingly, the age of the first calving was less for 31 days (P < 0.001) and for 23 days (P < 0.01).
Regarding the variability of the mean values of reproductive ability, one should note the high index of the variability of the service-period, which was from 45.6 to 72.2% and the duration of the dry period from 35.3 to 52.5%. The average variability parameters were at the age of the first insemination Cv = 19,6–24,5, the age of the first calving Cv = 14,1–16,7, the period between calving Cv = 15,0–26,1 and the reproductive ability Cv = 14,2–20.3. Sufficiently high consistency has a longevity. In this sign, the coefficient of variability was Cv = 1,6–2,1.
Thus most indicators of reproductive ability of breeding stock herds are in poor condition and in need of improvement.
The multi-vector coefficients of correlation between yield of milk for 305 days 1 lactation with indicators of reproduction ability were obtained. The phenotypic correlation in most cases was low, both positive and negative (r = -0,001 – -0,278; r = +0,006 – +0,350). In 14 cases with a probability P < 0.05–P < 0.001.
A dispersion analysis of the influence of breed, line and parents on the reproductive ability of cows was carried out. It was found that the power of impact (η2х) parents was the highest and amounted to 10,0–43,6%, then the line – 2,3–25,5% and, accordingly, the breed – 0,1–1,0%.
Most indicators of reproductive ability of cows are in unsatisfactory condition and need to be improved. Thus, the average service-period of these breeds ranged from 135 to 164 days, respectively, during the period between calving they were 414–443 days, which is significantly higher than the optimal indicators for 45–74 days and 49–78 days.
Phenotypic correlation between tattoos for 305 days 1 lactation with reproductive ability indicators in most cases was low, both positive and negative (r = -0,001 – -0,278; r = +0,006–+0,350).
The power of impact (η2х) of parents on reproductive ability of cows was the highest and amounted to 10.0–43.6%, then the lines – 2.3–25.5% and, accordingly, breeds – 0.1–1.0%.
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