Communication of the exterior with the duration and efficiency of the life use of cows
The purpose of our work is to evaluate the number of female pedigrees by the type of their daughters according to the method of linear classification. Evaluated the exterior of cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White milk for 2–5 months of lactation. In total, 526 cows were evaluated at "Vitchyzna" LLC (village Shpotivka). Evaluated descriptive signs in animals on the 9-point scale and in group complexes of linear features in the system of 100-point assessment according to the recommendations and methodology (Yu. P. Polupan and others, 2017). The average severity of descriptive features is estimated at five points, and the biological deviations in points from 1 to 9.
Linear type signs are the basis for all modern classification systems of the type and are the foundation for all systems of description of dairy cows. Linear grade is based on the measurement of individual type features. It describes the degree of development of the trait, not its desirability. Evaluated the main linear features such as growth, breast width, body depth, angularity, inclination and posterior width, rear limbs (rear view and side view), angle of rotation, movement (stroke), front fastening of the udder, arrangement of the front and back teeth, length of the teeth , the depth of the udder, the height of the udder from behind, the central link.
The slope of the head significantly affects the reproductive ability of animals. At very raised ices there is a threat of infection of the birth canal. In all evaluated herd animals, the average grade for inclination (4.41 points) was characterized by a slight rise, especially in the offspring of Stallion's pedigree 50750432 of the Starbucks line 352790 (3.8 points).
The width was measured for the distance between the caudal protrusions of the scapular humps. The wider the buttocks, the wider the rear part of the udder and the ankle passage, and therefore easier to pass the calving of the cow. All estimated cows of the herd have a generally broad poster (6.5 points), with the highest scoring index for the daughters of Discunt bull 101432000 (7.3 points) and an advantage over the rest of the daughters of the estimated bulls by 1.1–0.5 points (P < 0.001).
According to the features that characterize the condition of the extremities, the daughter of the bull Discunt (5.3 points) received a higher estimate for the position of the hock knuckle, but the faults yielded to the offspring of other breeders on the basis of the position of the pelvic limbs and the angle of the races.
It is known that the milk productivity of cows is directly dependent on the morpho-physiological state of the udder, which determines not only the level of milk productivity of cows, their suitability for machine milking, but also life-time use. The introduction of progressive systems for the maintenance of dairy cattle increases the requirements for cow mold and its morphological and functional properties.
In assessing the dairy system, the structure and structure of the udder were considered. Advantage is given to the features that depend on high hopes, adaptability to machine milking, and the inability to trauma. On the basis of the front attachment of the udder, the best estimate differs the daughters of the bulls Strategy 9501522 and Kingly 101409948 of Starbuck line 352790, and worse - descendants of the pedigree of Discunt (4.3 points), which is significantly lower than the rest of their peers by 1.0–1.3 points (P < 0.001).
The central ligament should be well pronounced to provide a good look and attachment of udder during lactation. With a well-developed supporting bundle, the cow is more likely to remain in the course of many lactations with high-level stiffness during use. In the evaluated cows, the central ligament is well expressed in the daughters of the bulls of Strategy 9501522 and Kingly 101409948, and the worst of the daughters of breeder Discunt (4.3 points).
According to the depth of the udder, the length, the placement of the front and back ducts of the daughter of Discunt inferior to the descendants of the rest of the bull-breeders.
Estimation according to the complexes of exterior signs of pedigree breeders in the herd of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breeds showed that the best among the estimated bull-breeders, according to a general assessment of the 100-ball system, is the daughter of a bull-bearer Kingly 101409948 of the Starbuck line 352790 (81,1 point), and the lowest score was found in the offspring of the bull Discunt (78.4 points).
A reliable positive correlation between the group characteristics and the majority of descriptive features of linear classification and the level of life support is established in the first-born cows of the controlled herd convincingly testifies to the effectiveness of the selection of animals by the exterior type, which will indirectly influence the increase of their milk productivity.
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