Special features of longitudinal musculature of earthworms population of Eisenia

  • K. I. Timchy Ukrainian State University of Chemical’s Technologies (Dnipro, Ukrainе)
  • O. I. Sidashenko Ukrainian State University of Chemical’s Technologies (Dnipro, Ukrainе)
  • V. T. Smetanin Ukrainian State University of Chemical’s Technologies (Dnipro, Ukrainе)
Keywords: histological studies, genus Eisenia, species identification, tissue structure, muscle fibers


Soil fertility is closely related to the activity of soil microorganisms [3]. According to modern visions [4, 5, 6], microorganisms can be called indicators of ecological status and soil fertility.
One of the possible approaches for biologizing agriculture and restoration of soil fertility is the use of biohumus. Obtaining biohumus – the process is based on biotransformation of organic waste by vermiculturing. The bio-chemical process of obtaining a biohumus is based on the ability of worms to use organic residues, transform them into the intestines and provide them in the form of coprolites.
Rainworms play an important role in agro-ecosystems, as the result of their livelihoods accelerates the fermentation of the organic substrate into the humus, accelerates the exchange of nitrogen and structural formation of the soil.
Rainworms are significantly different from the biological features of animals traditionally sown in agriculture, since it is difficult to identify individuals and evaluate their performance. In this regard, the main task of effective selection is complicated.
The problem of species identification of earthworms is important, as it relates to issues related to their viability, and in particular, their role in soil formation.
Today, little research is available on the research of the structure of tissues of natural populations of rainwater worms and their properties, and the development of vermicultivation, based on which is the breeding and industrial use for biotransformation of earthworms, requires a clear identification of the cultural lines of invertebrates of the family Lumbricidae.
Materials and methods: to study the structure of muscle tissue of the worms of the genus Eisenia for the species identification of a biological object.
The study of the structure of the tissues of muscle fibers was carried out using a modified technique [8]. To study the longitudinal muscles of earthworms, animals were fixed in 4% of formalin, paraffin and made a cross section of one of two segments located immediately behind the belt. Paraffin sections were prepared using a microtubule with a microscope receiving station (MicromHM-340), with a thickness of 4–6 microns. The samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin according to the standard procedure and subjected to a thorough microscopic examination. Microscopy was performed using Leica DMLS light microscope using lenses × 10, × 20, × 40, × 100.
It is known that the longitudinal muscle of the representatives of Lumbricidae has one layer of muscle cells, usually divided into seven separate muscle straps by the abdominal chains, lateral and bristle lines. Most of the cornea of the longitudinal muscle cells are under the heliothelium.
According to the diagnosis of the species, Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1896) has a transient type of muscular length, and the type Eisenia veneta (Rosa, 1896) is a longitudinal muscular tufts.
On the histological preparations we received, we can clearly see the longitudinal muscle of the beam type. In fig. 1 shows a section of the rainwater worm of the experimental group (laser irradiation time of 15 min). During the study of histological sections of experimental and control groups of worms, differences in tissue structure were not detected.
It is known that the layer of muscle fibers lumbricide forms longitudinal folds, resulting in longitudinal muscle as if broken into a series of boxes. In the walls, which pass through thin blood vessels and observed mesogenic cellular elements. In the middle of the boxes, the muscle cells are located one above the other, which in the transverse sections has the form of "fir trees"[10].
Free intercellular areas are filled with lymphoid tissue. In the E.veneta rainwater worms, the boxes 'are subdivided by the connective tissue plates onto the beams lying on top of each other in the form of' "columns".
The "columns" we observe on the sections of worm tissues give us the opportunity to assert that, according to the structural structure of tissues, our animals can be attributed to the species E.veneta.
One of the stages of establishing the species identification of the population of rainworms was histological research. After analyzing the samples of histological sections, we can conclude that according to the structural structure of tissues, our animals can be attributed to E.veneta.


1. Dogel, V., and L. Zenkevich. 1940. Rukovodstvo po zoologiikniga – Guide to Zoologybook. Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences. M., L. AN SSSR, 685 (in Russian).

2. Zhukov, O., O. Pakhomov, and A. Kunakh. 2007. Biolohichne riznomanittya Ukrayiny – Biological diversity of Ukraine. Dnipropetrovsk, Dnipropetr. Nats. Un-tu, 371 (in Ukrainian).

3. Iytinskaya, G. 2014. Gruntova mikrobiolohiya – Soil microbiology. K., Aristey, 284 (in Ukrainian).

4. Kunakh, O., O. Zhukov, and O. Pakhomov. 2010. Morfolohiya doshchovykh chervʺyakiv (Lumbricidae) – Morphology of rainworms (Lumbricidae). – Dnipropetrovsk, FOP Dryha T. V. 52 (in Ukrainian).

5. Patyka, V. and O. Tarariko. 2002. Ahroekolohichnyy monitorynh ta pasportyzatsiya silʹsʹkohospodarsʹkykh zemelʹ – Agroecological monitoring and certification of agricultural land. K., Fitosotsiotsentr, 131–168 (in Ukrainian).

6. Patyka, V., S. Taranenko, and A. Taranenko. 2014. Mikrobnyy biom riznykh gruntiv y gruntovo-klimatychnykh zon Poltavsʹkoyi oblasti – Microbial biome of different soils and soil-climatic zones of Poltava region. Mikrobiolohichnyy zhurnal – Microbiological Journal. 76:20–25 (in Ukrainian).

7. Patyka, N., and V. Patyka. 2013. Suchasni problem bioriznomanittya – Modern Biodiversity Challenges. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo – Forages and farming. 76:10–109 (in Ukrainian).

8. Patyka, V. F., G. Naumov, and L. Podobai. 2004. Agroekologicheskaya rol' azotfiksiruyushchikh mikroorganizmov vallelopatii vysshikh rasteniy – Agroecological role of nitrogen fixing microorganisms of higher plant alleopathy. K., Osnova, 318 (in Ukrainian).

9. Perel, T., and I. Malevich. 1987. Klass Oligokhety, ili Maloshchetinkovyye kol'chetsy (Oligochaeta) – Class Oligochaeta, or Piglets of small size (Oligochaeta) / Pod red. Yu. I. Polyanskogo. – 2-ye izd., pererab. – Undertheed. Yu. I. Polyansky – 2 nd. M., Prosveshcheniye, 376 (in Russian).

10. Timchy, K., V. Smetanin and О. Sidashenko. 2017. Vyrishennya problem vydovoyi identyfikatsiyi kulʹturnykh populyatsiy doshchovykh chervyakiv rodu Eisenia – Solving the problems of specific identification of cultural populations of rainworms of the the genus Eisenia. Rozvedennya i henetyka tvaryn : mizhvid. temat. nauk. zb. – Breeding and genetics of animals : interagency the- matic scientific collection. К., 54:156–161 (in Ukrainian).

11. Chayikovsky, Yu., O. Dieltsova, and S. Gerashchenko. 2000. Praktykum z histolohiyi, tsytolohiyi ta embriolohiyi. – Kyiv, Ivano-Frankivsk, 102 (in Ukrainіan).

12. Shelyag-Sosonko, Yu. 2003. Zberezhennya i nevysnazhlyve vykorystannya bioriznomanittya Ukrayiny: stan ta perspektyvy. K., Khimjest, 248 (in Ukrainian).
How to Cite
Timchy, K. I., Sidashenko, O. I., & Smetanin, V. T. (2018). Special features of longitudinal musculature of earthworms population of Eisenia. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 55, 130-134. https://doi.org/10.31073/abg.55.18
Breeding and Selection