Morphological composition of pigs carcasses – final hybrids of genotype yorkshire × landrace × maxgro depending on weight conditions
To determine the optimal level of pre-slaughter live weight of fattened animals of final hybrids Yorkshire × Landras × Maxgro genotype in the conditions of industrial complex LLC "SPE "Globinsky Pig Complex", eight groups of pigs of 10 heads each with a live weight from 85 to 120 kg have been studied with a group gradation of 5 kg. All pigs were final hybrids with genotype Yorkshire × Landrace × Maxgro of genetic company Hermitage Genetics. Keeping and growing animals were identical.
After cooling of carcasses their boning has been performed, with dividing into three parts according to the appropriate anatomical scheme (according to the technology adopted at the meat processing plant): anterior part (cervical-scapular), middle part (spinal-lumbar) and rear part (pelvic-femoral). The absolute and relative shares of cuts have been determined by weighing method, and after their boning the mass of morphological components: pork cheek, neck with or without a bone, scapula with bone, boneless loins, boneless breasts, cutlet meat, total meat, fat and bones and their ratio.
From three parts of pigs carcasses of evaluated genotypes, the least valuable meat qualities have her anterior cervical-scapular part. The mass of large-lump semi-finished products in the cervical-scapular thirds of carcasses has been grew in accordance with increasing pre-slaughter live weight of animals. Total carcass weight of slaughtered animals with a live weight of 120 kg increased by 46,5% compared to animals slaughtered at 85 kg. In a similar comparison, weight of pork cheek has been increased by 55,9%, neck with bone – 31,8%, scapular with bone – 45,0% and neck by 33,1%. According to the assessment of morphological composition of cervical-scapular third of pigs carcasses there is an uneven increase in bone mass, fat and meat from its total mass, which in percent is, 24,8%, 43,1% and 51,7%, respectively.
The relative part of morphological composition of the mass of cut of cervical-scapular part of the eighth group of animals indicates a slight increase in it (by 4,46%) muscle tissue with a decrease in bone by 14,0% and fat – by 1,7% compared with animals of the first group.
In general, when deboning anterior cervico-scapular part with increasing pre-slaughter weight of animals has been increased proportion of adipose tissue by reducing the content of bones. The proportion of meat in this part of carcass with increasing pre-slaughter weight did not change significantly.
The highest proportion in the chilled carcass has been taken dorsal-lumbar cut, which includes the loin, chest and cutlet meat. Analysis of the yield of valuable cuts of group weighing 120 kg compared to group weighing 85 kg has been showed a significant increase in the absolute weight of loin (1,91 kg), brisket (2,37 kg) and cutlet meat (2,95 kg). With an increase in the pre-slaughter live weight of pigs from 85 to 105 kg, relative yield of meat in spinal-lumbar part of the carcass did not grow, whereas with an increase in pre-slaughter mass to 110–120 kg, the yield of meat increased compared to animals of the fifth group by 0,51–2,04%.
By boning rear hip part of carcass have been set growth of its mass by increasing the pre-slaughter live weight of animals. When analyzing the specific share in the hip of meat, fat and bones, has been found an increase in its fat content and a decrease in the share of bones with an increase in pre-slaughter live weight. The percentage of muscle in this part of carcass remained almost unchanged with increasing the pre-slaughter live weight, the difference between extreme variants, which amounted to 0,47%, was unreliable.
According to estimation of meat, fat and bones in the total mass of carcasses have been shown a quantitative increase of these indicators, especially meat, with an increase in pre-slaughter live weight of animals. As for distribution by parts in the carcasses of relative indicators of meat, fat and bone, in general, they do not change in a consistent manner, similar to changes in pre-slaughter live mass. Thus, bone mass decreased by 2,0%, from 14,9% (85 kg group) to 12,9% (120 kg group), but the difference is unreliable.
The use in industrial fattening of pigs such combination hybrids as Yorkshire × Landrace × Maxgro with the increase of slaughter conditions has been provided through the features of genotypic possibilities of animals, not only improving their carcass meatiness, but decreasing of bone content at constant quantity of fat.
On the general background of growth pig's pre-slaughter live weight and corresponding similar increase in the mass of all anatomical parts of carcasses a trend has been set to preserve qualitative morphological composition of cuts in the ratio of muscle, bone and adipose tissue.
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