Character of productivity changes in generations of regional families of volynian beef cattle breed
Modern conditions for selection and breeding work with breeds of dairy and beef production of cattle require new methods for improving productive traits. Unfortunately, breeding methods by lines and families are not relevant. Widespread use of breeding bulls without considering their pedigrees and affiliation with the lines and families is a success of the case according to modern realities’ breeders. Work with regional families is individual. An estimation of hereditary opportunities of families is carried out during 5–6 years of life of the daughters. The data obtained have a greater degree of judgment about the selection and value of the foundation cows.
The studies have been carried out on the breeding stock of Volynian beef breed of the breed- ing livestock farm LLC "Zorya" of Kovel district of the Volynian region. The studies have been carried out according to the data of the primary zootechnical record (since 1982) of the herds of the breeding livestock farm beef breed (160 cows). It is accepted that the minimum composition of the family will be 7 cows. According to the primary zootechnical documentation, 18 regional families were formed. It has been established that for the majority of economically useful traits, most regional families have positive dynamics in generations.
Prospects for breeding of family in the future are determined not only by the average manifestation of economically useful traits, but also by the desirable progressive nature of their dynamics in generations. This, in turn, depends on many factors, the main of which is the level of feeding and the effect of pedigree qualities of servicing bulls. A positive dynamics was observed in all subsequent generations (daughters, grandchildren, great-grandchildren) for comparing of indicators of live weight of the foundation cow and progeny in 12 families, for milkiness – in 11. The generations of grandchildren had an advantage over the foundation cow on live weight in 12 months and milkiness in four families. The productivity of the foundation cow was exceeded by the numbers of daughters, grandchildren and great-grandchildren for the live weight at 210 days in two families (Halka 1537, Smorodyna 613), at 12 months – in Galka family 1537, 15 months – in four (Akula 102, Veselka 444, Halka 1537, Desna 870).
The first generation had dominated over the foundation cow in three families for live weight at the age of 210 days, and 12 and 15 months in one family.
The analysis of indicators in generations of families shows that grandchildren dominated by live weight of daughters at the age of 210 days in 12 related groups, in 12 and 15 months respectively in 11 and 9 families. The overwhelming majority of families have a positive dynamics of the growth of indicators from daughters to grandchildren for milkiness of the fresh cows. The exception is only two families (Halka 37 and Palma 275). In families of cows Bystra 1124, Bulana 943, Halka 37, Halka 1537 and Korona 2382 there is a negative dynamics to decrease the index of the intensity of growth in generations.
The vast majority of families have a positive dynamics in the growth of indicators from daughters to granddaughters for milkiness of the fresh cows. The exception is the family of the Halka 37. The nine families have a positive dynamics of milkiness from the foundation cow to the granddaughter. In the nine families can be traced the oscillatory nature of the studied trait.
Assessment of regional families by breeding grounds in generations is a contin- uation of a system for determining the breeding value of a foundation cow and her progeny in general. The classification of families taking into account the dynamics of productive features in generations has been established, that three families (Arfa 599, Visla 1016 and Kazka 433) are progressive, the two (Halka 37 and Palma 275) are attenuation. The overwhelming majority of families have the chang- ing nature of obtaining high productivity through generations.
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