Productive longevity of dairy cattle with the use of different methods of breeding
Indicators of productive longevity of cows of dairy breeds are inalienable features of the desirable type of cows that is being consolidated. Under the desirable type is understood not only the phenotype as a result of the implementation of the genotype in specific conditions, but also the totality of the genetic information that creates a certain potential of animal productivity, its adaptive and reproduction ability. Therefore, the purpose of our research was to study the indicators of productive longevity of cows of dairy breeds by different breeding methods.
The research was conducted on cows of Holstein (n = 2396), Ukrainian Black-and-White (n = 12038) and Red-and-White (n = 1799) dairy breeds. Retrospective analysis of duration and the effectiveness of life-time use of cows was carried out using the method of Yu. P. Polupan (2010).
It was established that purebred animals of domestic breeds had better indicators of productive longevity in comparison with crossbreeds obtained by absorbing crossing with Holstein breeders. Among the purebred animals of Holstein, Ukrainian Black-and-White, Red-and-White dairy breeds the last one were characterized by the longest use in herds (3.78 lactation) and the highest lifelong yields (19894 kg). Animals of the Holstein breed had the highest intensity of milk production. They had significantly higher milk-yields per day, productive use and lactation (P < 0.001) than cows of domestic breeds.
Among the total number of investigated animals in each individual breed the share of purebred cows of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed was 19%, and Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed – only 9.5%. The rest of the animals were received by the absorption crossbreeding of domestic breeds with Holstein bulls.
The crossbreeds of Ukrainian Black-and-White breed with different proportions of heredity of Holstein in comparison with purebred were characterized by (P < 0.001) lower lifelong duration – by 234, productive use – by 244, lactation – by 237 days, the number of lactations per life – by 1.15, life duration – by 3276 and life-long amount of milk fat – by 118 kg.
Purebred cows of Ukrainian Red-and-White breed pure-breeding cows reliably (P < 0.01–0.001) dominated crossbreeds by 493, productive use – by 488 days, lactation – by 1,17, life-long duration – by 3094 and lifetime quantity of fat – by 117 kg.
Cows of domestic breeds, whose conditional bloodiness of the Holstein does not exceed 50% were characterized by the best indicators of life duration, productive use, lactation and the lifetime number of lactations. The increase of Holstein shares caused the reduce of their lifelong milk-yields. This indicator was less noticeable and mostly unlikely among the animals of different genotypes of the Ukrainian Black-and-White breed, and the animals of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breeds were characterized by decreasing (P < 0.01–0.001) of lifetime yields with the increasing of Holstein share with over 75%. Animals with a high proportion of Holstein heredity (over 93.7%) had the highest intensity of milk production (yields per day of life, productive use and lactation).
The relationships between the genotype and the productive longevity of the studied cows were weak, but in most cases they were positive (P < 0.001): among the animals of Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed correlation coefficients between particle heredity and longevity, productive use and lactation ranged from 0,097 to 0,144, and among the cows of Ukrainian Red-and-White – from 0,139 to 0,187 at P < 0.001 in all cases. Negative values of the correlation coefficients are marked between the share of heredity and yields per day of productive use and lactation.
Strength of the influence of the share of heredity of Holstein on the indicators of duration and efficiency of life-long use of cows of Ukrainian Black- and Red-and-White dairy breeds ranged from 9.0 to 34.3%. It should be noted that the share of heredity of Holstein significantly influenced on the longevity, productive use and lactation of cows, than their lifelong milk-yields.
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