Milk production in Ukraine: comparative analysis
Ukraine is considered an agrarian country. The production of competitive products ensures the enrichment and prosperity of the country. The production of milk and dairy products, as one of the directions of the agrarian complex, plays an important role in the economy. The agrarian market, which includes the milk market, functions as a mechanism in which the producers, processors and consumers are concentrated.
However, the functioning and development of the industry today is in a difficult situation (at the stage of change). At the moment, to raise the profitability of the industry, farms reduce the number of livestock, which leads to a critical reduction in the gross milk collection. At the same time, the reduction of the gross milk collection leads to an increase in prices.
In the course of the research, the data of the State Statistics Service for the last 15 years were analyzed. The aim was to analyze the changes, to substantiate the possibilities of increasing the production of domestic dairy products.
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in every fifth country in the world milk production tends to increase slightly. According to FAO data in the countries of Europe in 2016, the volume of milk production has almost not increased and is 0.6% compared to 2015. Such a small percentage is due to the tendency to reduce the number of cows in the countries of the European Union (EU). Although, according to FAO forecasts, in 2017 in the EU countries, despite the reduction of cow's stock, it is expected to increase milk supply to processing enterprises by 0.5%. According to statistics in Ukraine, as of January 1, 2016, the number of cows in all categories of farms was over 2.1 million head, which is 39% of the number of cows compared with 2000. In connection with this, the gross revenues for the period from 2000 to 2016 decreased by almost 20%. Reducing the gross milk collection led to a 6% decrease in milk production per person. In 2016, milk consumption per capita was 209.5 kg / year or 55.1% per capita from the established norm of 380 kg / year. Such low consumption of milk and dairy products can be explained by rising prices and low solvency of the population. One of the important indicators of herd productivity is the average milk yield, which as of January 1, 2016 amounted to 4735 kg per cow per year, which is twice as much as in 2000. Such an increase in diets results from the improvement of the genetic potential of modern dairy and dairy-meat breeds of cattle, the improvement of feeding and keeping of livestock, as well as the management of farms. Quality management, investment and increased production will ensure the progress of this important industry. Optimization of the herd structure, feed base, maintenance and maintenance technologies, management work, support at the state level, and the formation of a market for milk and dairy products. Due to these factors, the market will develop and is at a qualitatively new level, characterized by the achievement of development goals, the growth of milk and dairy products, the competitiveness of commodity producers and the most complete satisfaction of the needs of the population in milk and dairy products. Integration of Ukraine into the EU internal markets implies unconditional compliance with the requirements of the European Union. It is necessary to foresee in time the changes occurring not only on the European but also on the world milk market, to carry out the national agrarian policy concerning the development of the milk market, taking into account the principles and example of the development of an economically successful European milk and milk products market, where the offer is formed in accordance with demand and market pricing. The development of dairy cattle breeding is one of the factors of food security of the state. At the moment demand is decreasing, and with it also production. In order to bring the industry closer to high production-economic parameters, it is necessary to balance these two values: by increasing dairy consumption, using modern technologies in feeding, keeping and applying the latest marketing measures. The combination of these instruments will determine the level of competitiveness, efficiency and prospects of the development of the milk production market in Ukraine, and establish a market equilibrium between supply and demand.
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