Evaluation of organoleptic and interior indices of cross bred carp of first generation from crossing antoninsko-zozulenetskiy and lubin intra-breed types of Ukrainian framed breed
In current market environment, fish farms are faced with the task of providing consumers with high quality products. Currently, the mean fish weight is taken as the main indicator of fish product quality. At the same time, marketable grades depend on the object of cultivation, namely its breed characteristics, environmental and physiological conditions.
The object of the study were 1+ carp of different geneses obtained at the end of the culture season. Four groups of 1+ carp reared under similar conditions were formed for the study. The first group included framed carp of Lubin intrabreed type (further LFC), the second group included framed carp of Antoninsko-Zozulenetskyi intrabreed type (further AZFC), the third group included a cross of a framed carp male Antoninsko-Zozulenetskyi intrabreed type with a framed carp female of Lubin intrabreed type (further ♂AZFC x ♀LFC) and the fourth group included a cross of a framed carp male of Lubin intrabreed type with a framed carp female Antoninsko-Zozulenetskyi intrabreed type (further ♂LFC x ♀AZFC).
The largest proportion of the body weight of the studied carp groups was filet with skin. In the ♂AZFC x ♀LFC group, this parameter was the highest compared to other three groups. The lowest parameter of edible part was observed in the original Lubin framed carp that can be due to its physiological-biochemical peculiarities.
A significant proportion of the body weight of 1+ carp of different geneses was occupied by the head, which was an average of 15% of the total weight. However, no significant inter-group differences were found for this parameter. The weight percentage of fins and bones was on average 15.44% and was not characterized by individual peculiarities. A typical feature of all studied four groups of fish was the smallest proportion of scales ranging from 0.4 to 1.0% due to the framed type of scaling.
For the organoleptic analysis of carp of different geneses, the notions of edible, partially edible and inedible part of the body of fish are accepted for use. The edible parts include skeletal muscles and skin, partially edible – head and bones. The inedible parts include scales and guts. To assess the marketable grade of fish, individual parts were expressed as a percentage relative to the total fish weight. Thus, after analyzing all studied fish groups, we concluded that the inedible part of the carcass was within 15%.
In order to provide a marketable assessment of interbred carp of first generation from crossing the Antoninsko-Zozulenetskyi and Lubin intrabreed types of Ukrainian framed breeds, we analyzed the main interior morphological features, in particular, we determined the contents of fat, protein and dry matter in the skeletal muscles of studied 1+ fish groups. According to the obtained results, an increase in fat content in the skeletal muscles is observed as follows: LFC → AZFC → ♂ LFC × ♀ AZFC → ♂AZFC × ♀LFC. The crossbred carp groups were characterized by a higher fat content in the skeletal muscles that might indicate the directionality of the hybridization factor to improve the flow of biochemical processes in the body. However, no significant inter-group differences were practically observed. This can be explained by the same level of provision with natural and artificial feeds because all fish groups were reared in the same conditions.
The dry matter content was also approximately the same in all fish. This indicates an optimal balance between natural and artificial feeds and reflects the fact that the conditions of cultivation were as similar as possible. The protein content of the skeletal muscles was approximately within the same range in the experimental and control groups with its increase in the crossbred group ♂AZFC × ♀LFC, however this difference was not significant.
These parameters are of particular importance for the maintenance of a number of biological processes in fish body, taking into account the fact that during the winter fasting, carp organism uses its own proteins, lipids and trace elements accumulated during the spring and summer period to provide the energy and macronutrient needs of the organism. In addition, the total content of fats, proteins and dry matters in the skeletal muscles is used as a qualitative indicator of fish flesh.
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