Dairy cattle in Bulgaria – complex assessment dairy farms
Milk production is the most important agricultural activity all the world, including Bulgaria. Dairy cattle as always plays an important role in livestock production of Bulgaria. The purpose of our research was the dynamics of changes in dairy cattle breeding from 2007 to 2018, including: total milk production, number of cattle, number of dairy cows, % of controlled cows. For the last 10 to 12 years, the dairy sector has been developing very dynamically. Comprehensive assessment of dairy farms to establish their competitiveness in a market economy includes the more important parameters affecting the efficiency of production (milk production, reproduction, health, breeding, feeding, milking, hygiene and farming, farms. In Bulgaria, the leading dairy breed is the Black-and-White breed, which breeds in all regions of the country. A comprehensive study of dairy farms, including more important parameters affecting the efficiency of milk production, provides valuable information for the development of dairy cattle breeding. The aim of our work was a comprehensive assessment of dairy farms with modern technologies for various herds of capacities and the evaluation of parameters affecting the efficiency of milk production. In view of the above, we set the task to conduct research and study the effect of the milk productivity of cows in dairy herds on the reproductive traits of the Black-and-White breed, differing both in the number of livestock and in the level of productivity. The material for research was a database of cows, which were estimated for a livestock of 19 dairy farms with 4340 cows of different lactations located in different regions of the country. Studies were conducted from 2016 to 2017. Farms where research was conducted were selected on the principle of random sampling according to the ten-point system for integrated assessment. The analyzed data were grouped into 3 groups, dairy hosts, which are distributed as follows: from 50 to 150 cows – 8 dairy farms; from 151–250 cows – 8 farms and from 251 to 1500 cows – 3 dairy farms. Statistical analysis of milk production indicators of cows in all farms showed an increase in animal productivity. Analysis of the results shows that the cows, in the study, realized a high milk yield - the average milk yield of the studied farms was 6,700 kg. The highest average yield of cows in farms of dairy farms for livestock from 251 to 1500 cows-heads: the average yield of cows is 7500 kg of milk.
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