Productivity levels of different road crops and effectiveness of the use of selective indices in roughing
Growing rabbits for industrial maintenance technology requires a painstaking work of rabbits with livestock, which is based on knowledge of the nature of the inheritance of breeding grounds and the level of their implementation in the “genotype-environment” system.
Improvement of breeding work in modern rabbit breeding with the purpose of accurate determination of breeding value requires the use of modern selection genetic methods, which together with complex bonitis include the determination of the level of variability of breeding grounds for ensuring the maximum level of phenotypic consolidation of the livestock by the indicator of meat productivity. Determination of population genetic parameters of animals for the purpose of further development of breeding indices for determining the breeding value of rabbits is an issue of the industry. Therefore, considerable attention in the breeding work of current rabbit breeding should be directed at the determination of genetic and economic parameters of animals, the construction of breeding indices whose purpose is to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of breeding. Determination of population-genetic parameters of rabbits of various domestic and foreign breeds with the purpose of further development of breeding indices for determining the breeding value of rabbits is undoubtedly relevant.
The aim of the study is to investigate the productivity of rabbit breeds of New Zealand white, California, Poltava silver and the effectiveness of the use of breeding indices in rabbit.
Research of meat productivity of rabbits was carried out in Cherkassy region based on the rabbits farm of the "Marchuk N. V." and the experimental rabbit farm of the Cherkassy experimental station of bioresources of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA on the stock of California, New Zealand white breeds and Poltava silver for industrial maintenance technology.
It has been established that on the basis of live weight, the New Zealand white rabbits had a superiority over their counterparts. The loss index indicates higher meat productivity of rabbits in the New Zealand White and Californian breeding lines, with coefficients in groups of 62–66%, which is 6 and 10% higher than the Poltava silver (P > 0,999). In the context of generations, there was a decrease in some factors in the formation of indicators of meat productivity in such breeds of rabbits as New Zealand white and Poltava silver (P > 0.999), which is due to the paratypical component of the interaction of the organism in the "genotype-environment" system. Indicator of fertility of the rabbits was subjected to variability both inside the studied populations and generations, in general, varied within 8,10–8,30 heads.
An analysis of the live weight of rabbits at the age of 120 days derived from these types of crosses indicates the tendency to increase this indicator for the use of parents by the scheme ВxС (index 56–60х61–65) and СxС (61–65х61–65). In particular, data show that in the group of New Zealand rabbit rabbits, the maximum live weight indices were descendants of the combination of pairs according to the heterogeneous scheme (females with an index of 61–65 points and all males involved). Under this option, the average live weight was 2820–2859 g, which in turn was higher at 86–125 g of the minimum value obtained when crossing rabbits with indices 50–55 points (P > 0,95 ... 0,999). For California rabbits, the maximum mean values of the live weight of descendants were recorded using the cross-linking scheme C (61–65) xB (56–60), CxC (61–65) DxC (66–70x61–65) and DxD (66–70) (P > 0.95 ... 0.999).
The data indicate that the use of a large male in smaller females provides for the production of offspring with a higher live weight, provided that females have a breeding index above 55 points. When compared with females of group A (index 50–55), the difference was 87 g, and the minimum value of the investigated index was obtained for the schemes of the combination of pairs AxA – 2710 g, which is significantly lower than the maximum value of 150g (P > 0,95).
The direction of selection of the studied breeds showed a difference in performance of rabbits. The study of body parts suggests that the higher values of the indicators that determine the meat productivity of specialized meat breeds – New Zealand white and California compared to the domestic Poltava silver.
The use of index selection makes it possible to efficiently select animals based on live weight and develop effective vetting schemes based on an objective assessment of the animals used for reproduction.
The use of methods for index estimation of productive features allows to objectively allocate rabbits male and a rabbits female for formation of a highly productive population of rabbits on the basis of live weight.
The maximum live weight figures were descendants of animals, the breeding indices for males were not lower than 60 points, females – 55 points, respectively, which should be taken into account when planning breeding work with rabbit populations.
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