Growth peculiarities of purebred and crossbred pigs with different intensity of formation
At the present stage of development of pig breeding (when pigs of different genotypes are used in the breeding process), priority methods in scientific research are methods for improving and predicting the productive features of pigs in early ontogenesis. Therefore, an assessing the formation of animal processes as the basis, which forms the level of productivity in the subsequent periods of postnatal development, depending on the direction of productivity is important.
Nowadays the study of patterns of ontogenesis is carried out by traditional methods that provide for the determination of indicators of growth and development of animals for live weight and linear measurements and using growth rate indices that can be considered as criteria for determining the breeding value of animals. However, detailed studies of the patterns of pigs growth of modern high-productive genotypes, selected for high growth intensity with purebred pigs and hybridization were not carried out, therefore the study of this issue remains relevant and important for the development of criteria for the evaluation and selection of animals. It is also advisable to determine the possibility of using growth indices for prediction of live weight and average daily increments, taking into account the data obtained in early ontogenesis.
The purpose of the research is to study the peculiarities of the growth of Large White pigs, combinations of Large White x Landraces and Large White x Pietrenes with varying intensity of formation at the initial stage of ontogenesis and establishing linkages of growth indices with productive features in certain periods of ontogenesis.
The research was conducted in the conditions of a factory for breeding pigs of Large White breed of the State Enterprise "Stepne" in Poltava region. Three groups of animals were formed for the research: I group – LW x LW Group ІІ – LW х Land the third group – LWхP, each of which was divided into classes according to the index of intensity of formation in three months of age by means of determination of average values, according to the research scheme. At the same time, the class plus variant (M+) attributed individuals that were above the average in the sample, and to the class minus variant (M-) animals, with an indicator of the intensity of formation of lower average.
In the distribution of animals within the groups according to the intensity of the formation of higher live weight, there were different variant pigs in all experimental groups. At the same time, the largest difference between the contrasting groups was the combination of the LW x P in animals, in particular, at two months it was 25.49% (p ≤ 0.001), in the three month period it was 16.87% (p ≤ 0.001), in the four month period it was 12.26% (р ≤ 0,05), at the age of five months – 10,3% (р ≤ 0,05) and at 6 months of age – 7,38%. In the pigs combination of LW x L, the difference in the groups of live weight was small, however, it was the largest at four months of age – 8.26% (p ≤ 0.05). Purebred animals of Large White breed differed the smallest difference within the group: The minimum difference between the contrasting groups at the rate of formation was set at four months of age – 0.81 kg, and the largest - at the age of four months and was – 5.12 kg (p ≤ 0.001). The largest daily average increments in the 0–1 and 1-4 month periods. the combination of LW x L was different for animals, which was 14.5% (p ≤ 0.05) and 22.8% (p ≤ 0.01) higher than the control group, but in the second period (4–6 months), the significant difference between the groups was not established. Pigs of the combination of LW x P yielded analogues throughout the experiment. However, the greatest interest is the comparative estimation of average daily increments within the studied groups. Thus, the minus-variant pigs of the first and third experimental groups were characterized by high growth rates in the period from two to four months. Pigs with a high intensity of formation (class plus-variant) have suspended their growth precisely during this period, although after four months of age (from four to five months) they had a fairly intense growth and prevailed on the average daily increments of animals of the class minus-variant on 6.13% and 2.76% respectively. In crossbred animals, the combination of LW x L observed other patterns of growth. Pigs of the class plus-variant from birth to four months of age were characterized by high intensity of growth, but after four months the intensity of growth began to decrease, and minus-variant pigs continued to grow intensively.
This is confirmed by the fact that growth retardation at a certain stage of ontogenesis promotes an increase in its intensity in subsequent age periods, that is, the growth curve of pigs has a wave-like character associated with differentiation processes during which the growth process is slowed down.
The process of formation of young animals in adult animals can be judged by the coefficient of formation intensity, which differed within each experimental group. The dynamics of the index of the intensity of formation in different age periods shows that the maximum value of the index falls on the age from birth to three months for all genotypes studied (IF = 1,043 ± 0,0154).The most equable growth was observed in 0–3 and 4–6 years of age in all studied animals.
Studies have shown that the intensity index of formation had a high positive correlation with daily daily increments in the age 0–3 and 2–4 months (respectively r = 0.650–0.558), during these periods, there was a rather high correlation between increments and growth stress (r = 0.560–0.748), although the highest value of the correlation coefficient was observed in the age range of 1–4 months – 0.950. The most informative was the index of equability of growth (r = 0.638–0.986).
Therefore, the obtained results indicate the possibility of early prediction of pig production during the initial period of ontogenesis, which will increase the rate of breeding progress in the population.
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